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The Center for Study and Preservation of the Majority Text

The Center for Study and Preservation of the Majority Text (CSPMT) is an organization dedicated to scholarly study, research and preservation of Byzantine Greek New Testament manuscripts. This textual tradition is found in various printed editions in the West and is also preserved in the Greek New Testament and lectionary text of the Orthodox church.

Our board members at CSPMT are leading ecclesiastical officials, pastors and textual scholars from various traditions which uphold the Byzantine text of the Greek New Testament. At CSPMT we are dedicated in sharing this rich legacy with scholars, clergy and other interested parties.

May God bless you.

News & Website Updates

September 18th, 2014

The Aldine Bible and Greek Lectionary editions

The well known Venetian Greek printing family of Aldus Manutius (1449-1515) printed and published his Greek Bible in Venice posthumously in 1518. Manutius is known to have utilized the Ersamus' (Novum Instrumentum omni, 1st ed.) in the production of his own Bible. However, there are significant textual variations that CSPMT has recently discovered. The Aldine Bible in turn was the precursor edition for the Greek Euaggelion (Gospel), editio princeps lectionary later published by another Venetian printer, Stefano da Sabio in 1539. There is a very close textual relationship between the Aldine Bible and Greek lectionary editions.

We can conclude therefore, that the Aldine Bible influenced printed Greek lectionary editions up to the present day. CSPMT will be reviewing the 1st edition of the Apostolos (Acts & Epistles Lectionary) by Spelinni (1540) for a similar influence by the rare and valuable Greek Aldine Bible.

August 30th, 2014

The Stephanus (1550), 3rd edition and its reprints

CSPMT has recently found all TR reprints of the well known Stephanus 3rd edition to contain printing errors except the accurate Scrivener editions, (1860-1903). The reprints of the Stephanus text as found in the Mill (1707), Oxford editions (1828-1889), and all Gambold (1742) reprints all contain these same errors in varying places throughout the Greek New Testament.

The correct 1887 Scrivener TR edition is found on our editions resource page for download. The Scrivener (editio maior) edition compares the accurately reprinted Stephanus text with most other Received text editions (Beza, Elzevir) and compared with later critical texts of the Greek New Testament in its critical apparatus, including the Westcott-Hort and the English Revised Version texts variant readings.

August 26th, 2014

The UBS 5th rev. edition & CBGM

The new UBS 5th rev. edition of the Greek New Testament has been published by the United Bible Society this month. The critical text based editions of the Greek New Testament (including the Nestle-Aland 28th edition), are utilizing Coherence Based Genealogical Methodology (CBGM) to introduce textual changes in these editions as found in the ongoing Editio Critica Maior (ECM) series. As a result, thirty-three changes in the text of the Catholic Epistles have been incorporated into the new UBS 5th rev. and Nestle-Aland 28th editions. Most textual changes made thus far in the two recently published critical text editions of the Greek New Testament have been minor in significance in relationship to the Byzantine or traditional text of the Greek New Testament. Continued preference for readings found in the minority Greek MSS and old uncials especially Codex B (03), continues in these editions.

CSPMT will be posting a general review of the CBGM its use in New Testament textual criticism and the ECM series in the near future.

August 23rd, 2014

Colines 1534 Greek NT:

We have added to our resources a copy of the Greek New Testament dated 1534. Simon de Colines was a Parisian scholar and printer, the step-father of Robert Estienne. The Greek Testament that he printed in 1534 was the first effort at a critical Greek text of the New Testament. It was based partly on the Complutensian Polyglot and partly on Erasmus' third edition of 1522. He also used some manuscripts, as evidenced by at many unique readings not found in the earlier texts.

Colines omitted the comma Johanneum (I John 5:7-8), while other Greek TR editions included it. Simon began a tradition of biblical scholarship and publication that his step-son and grandson carried on under the famous Estienne imprint. His edition was also used for the translation of the Geneva Bible 1st edition in 1560.


August 14th, 2014

BGNT Update:

CSPMT has now revised and completed our Byzantine Greek New Testament (BGNT) base text. You may download now at our text site at or you may also access the site and download it from our main menu at CSPMT.

Also, we are now in the process of collations in preparation for the addition of the critical apparatus to the BGNT.

Thank you.

July 26th, 2014

Historic Traditional text based Bibles.

CSPMT occasionally has inquiries on Traditional text based bible versions. We are making available direct web links to many notable and historic versions of the bible. We recommend downloading these editions you wish to obtain in order to avoid closed links to these bibles. Several of these are large color files linked to the original edition at their holding repository or library.

Morrison Chinese Bible (1813). First Chinese Bible. Black/white facsimile

Karpov Orthodox Chinese Version (1864).

Schereschewsky NT (1898). Classical Chinese version.

Leisvelt Bible (1522/1546 6th ed.)

Tyndale NT (1526). Black/white facsimile.

Geneva Bible (1560)

King James Version (1611)

Se Wsi Testamentii (1548)

Olivetan Bible (1535)

Luther (September Bible) NT (1522). Black/white facsimile.

Biblia Brzeska (1563)

Almeida NT (1681)

Bucharest Bible (1688)

Ostrog Bible (1581). First Old Slavonic Bible.

Elizabeth Bible New Testament (1751)

Reina-Valera Bible (1569).

Thet Nyia Testamentit på Swensko (1526). Black/white facsimile.

CSPMT will be adding occasionally to this list of important and historic Traditional text based bibles.

July 2nd, 2014

BGNT Collation opportunity:

CSPMT is seeking additional volunteer assistance to collate Greek New Testament MSS for the critical apparatus in our forthcoming Byzantine Greek New Testament (BGNT) hardcopy edition.

If you are qualified and interested in taking part in the collation of primarily minuscule Greek MSS for inclusion in our edition, please contact us at CSPMT at the following email provided below.

CSPMT contact email:

June 24th, 2014

The Byzantine Greek New Testament (BGNT) online edition:

Our website with the newly completed Byzantine Greek New Testament (BGNT) base text is now online. CSPMT will now be working on the BGNT critical apparatus in preparation for publication of our hardcopy edition. The new BGNT online text may be accessed at our side bar menu or at the link provided below.


June 19th, 2014

Online Byzantine MSS at Oxford

New online Byzantine MSS have been added as part of the joint Oxford/Vatican manuscript digitization project. Among several manuscripts now available for viewing are two Byzantine Kappa Kx Gospel manuscripts, GA 45 and GA 46.

You may view these and other manuscripts at Oxford through the link provided below:

June 16th, 2014

CSPMT is making available for download a quick reference New Testament textual lineage chart showing most popular Bible versions and their Greek New Testament manuscript basis.

Download NT Text Chart here:

NT Text Chart

June 13th, 2014

The BGNT (Byzantine Greek New Testament) and other Traditional Text New Testament editions:

While CSPMT is nearing release of our web based BGNT (Byzantine Greek New Testament) we would also like to clarify our position at CSPMT regarding the textus receptus or (TR) and previous editions of the Byzantine Majority textform.

The historical textual value of the so-called textus receptus found in various editions of the Greek New Testament is unparralled in the West. It should not be construed as somehow inferior to any recently produced Byzantine/Majority text or critical based edition of the Greek New Testament. We believe that various textual scholars in the past who used the traditional text of the Greek New Testament in the form the textus receptus, were not misguided or holding to an inferior textform. Though notable traditional text scholars such as Herman Hoskier, Dean John Burgon suggested limited improvements to the textus receptus, neither of them saw the textus receptus as an inferior textform of the Greek New Testament. All previous editions of the traditional text of the Greek New Testament such as the TR, the Orthodox (Antoniades), Hodges-Farstad (HF) Majority Text and (RP) Robinson-Pierpont Byzantine textform of the Greek New Testaments are editions of the Byzantine textform. These editions stand apart from the critical text form of the Greek New Testament found in the Nestle-Aland, UBS and the earlier Westcott-Hort Greek New Testament all based primarily upon the minority of Greek New Testament manuscripts sometimes erroneously called the Alexandrian text form.

The BGNT or Byzantine Greek New Testament, is be based upon a broad consensus of Byzantine Kr or fam. 35 manuscripts from Matthew through the Apocalypse. While the “majority” of Byzantine manuscripts of the Greek New Testament usually contain the Kappa-K or the Kx text in the Gospels most often accompanied with the (μ6) profile of the pericope adulterae section as found in the HF (Hodges-Farstad) Majority text, the BGNT base text utilizes the more controlled Byzantine Kr/fam. 35 (μ7) textform common during the Restoration Period in Constantinople (1261-1453) and mass produced by professional monk/scribes especially located at the Holy Hodegon Scriptorium in Constantinople. The Kr/fam. 35 textform is also found in several manuscripts containing both the Euaggelion (Gospel) and Apostolos (Acts/Epistles) lectionary. In addition, the particular textform utilized in BGNT base text was described by Antoniades in his Orthodox Greek New Testament intro. (1904/1912 rev.), as the more highly Byzantine texttype found in lectionary manuscripts of the Greek New Testament.

While finalizing our preparation for our web based BGNT text release, CSPMT would like to especially thank our viewers and those who have assisted us during our research and production of the Byzantine Greek New Testament text. More people across the world are continuing to become aware of the work and research CSPMT and the Byzantine Majority text position. We are thankful to God about this and our supporters for your continued prayers in our mission.

June 5th, 2014

Update on the Byzantine Greek New Testament (BGNT) edition

CSPMT will soon be launching our online text site at It will be one of the first Traditional text based Greek New Testaments with its own online edition. The selection of the Byzantine Kr/fam. 35 base text for the New Testament base text was made for its textual accuracy and consistency, in addition to its historical importance as the most widely accepted textform of the Greek New Testament during the late Byzantine Empire.

The Kr/fam. 35 base text will serve as the comparison base text for our BGNT (Byzantine Greek NT) edition’s critical comparison apparatus in the near future. CSPMT continues to favor prior Greek New Testament editions including the Hodges-Farstad (HF), Robinson-Pierpont (RP), Antoniades Orthodox GNT and all TR or Textus Receptus editions of the Greek New Testament over the minority text based critical Greek New Testaments and dependent versions. Our English and foreign version preferences are those based only upon Traditional texts of the Greek New Testament such as the King James and New King James versions.

We look forward share our BGNT online edition and pray it will be a blessing to all as we continue to research and spread the Good News of God's Holy and preserved Word through the Byzantine Majority text.

May 21st, 2014

The Syriac Peshitta and the Byzantine text

CSPMT upholds the commonly held position of Greek origins of the autographs of the New Testament while recognizing the textual importance of several early translations and their transmissional relationship to the Greek New Testament. One of the early related translations to the Byzantine text of the New Testament is the Syriac Peshitta.

The Syriac Peshitta has long been recognized as a close textual relative to the majority of Byzantine Greek New Testament MSS. However, CSPMT has determined in recent research that the so-called Eastern Aramaic Peshitta is slightly more distant in its textual relationship to the Byzantine text than its slightly more recent counter-parts, the Philoxenian and Harklean Peshitta. Standing at still more variance from the majority text found of Byzantine MSS are the Western Curetonian, Palestinian and the St. Catherine’s pilimpsest MS, referred to as the Sinaitic Syriac.

The Philoxenian and Harklean Peshitta revised the Eastern Peshitta to conform to the current Byzantine text of the day. These Peshitta revisions occurred during early 6th and 7th centuries at Mabbug in Mesopotamia by Philoxenius and Polycarp and the Harklean revision later by Thomas of Harkel. The textual annotations of the later Harklean Peshitta were noted by asterisks in the center margins, or in the side or footnote margins of the Harklean Peshitta text. However, the Philoxenian Syriac Peshiita had apparently by the time of Thomas of Harkel already been textually revised towards the Byzantine text popular in the day. These Byzantine readings apart from the Eastern Peshitta readings are readings found in agreement with Byzantine fam. Π which is a early Byzantine textform. Von Soden had also recognized fam. Π as utilized by both St. John Chrysostom and Victor of Antioch in their own commentaries on John and Mark. The textual variations found within the Philoxenian/Harklean Peshitta match the most minority of variations found within Byzantine fam. Π.

The Eastern Peshitta contains 22 books of the NT while the Harklean version includes the II, IIII Epistles of John, II Peter and Jude, but both lack the Apocalypse which is not found in extant MS copies. Also, the Eastern Peshitta very early adopted some particular Alexandrian and other Western corruptions such as in John 1:18 (ο μονογενης Θεος) in place of the standard (ο μονογενης Υιος) as found in both the Byzantine and Philoxenian/Harklean Peshitta texts. The Harklean version is divided among its MSS on the inclusion of the Byzantine PA (pericope adulterae) section as found in John’s Gospel in its usual location at John 7:53-8:11, while maintaining other notable Byzantine variants such as in: (Mat 6:13, 16:2-3, 17:21, 18:11; Mk 9:29, 44, 46, 16:9-20; Lk 9:55-56, 11:2-3, 22:43-44, 23:34; Jn 1:18).

CSPMT is providing the following references for further study on the Syriac Peshitta.

Recommended resources for study of the Syriac Peshitta:
English translations by: (John Wesley Etheridge, James Murdock, Paul Younan)
Critical Editions: (Pousey and Gwilliam, George Kiraz).
Websites: (,

May 4th, 2014

CSPMT is making available the book, Defense of the Greek Vulgate or Received/Byzantine text of the New Testament written by Rev. Frederick Nolan in 1815. This work contains theories and opinions on the origins of the Byzantine text
of the Greek New Testament that may not necessarily reflect the position of CSPMT, but is included on our website for
its historical value as the 1st scholarly defense of the Byzantine text-form at variance to the critical text of the Greek New Testament.

Click here

April 25th, 2014

The BGNT Text: A New Byzantine Greek New Testament

CSPMT has now completed the text of the Byzantine Greek New Testament(BGNT). The text of the BGNT will soon be integrated onto the website itself for direct utilization online. Further plans will be the publication of a future hard copy edition complete with a critical apparatus. The critical apparatus will contain many Byzantine MSS, Church Fathers and other Greek NT texts for comparison with the BGNT base text.

The text of the BGNT is composed of a consensus of many Kr/f35 MSS. Careful attention has been paid to the group’s strict controlled accuracy to ensure the closest proximity reading of the assumed exemplar text of this Byzantine text group. The text also accounts for presence of moveable-Nu and Sigma in this texttype.

BGNT Text download:


April 25th, 2014

Festschrift for Dr. Maurice A. Robinson

A festschrift has been recently published in Germany dedicated in honor to the lifetime research of Dr. Maurice A. Robinson of Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. The collection of essays included in the festschrift are
written by several scholars examining various topics concerning the Byzantine Text of the Greek New Testament.

The link below provides initial information about the coming release of this study.

April 17th, 2014

BGNT Text update

CSPMT has now completed our final review of the base text for the BGNT (Byzantine Greek New Testament). We will be making it available soon on our companion site at:

April 7th, 2014

Upcoming PA Conference

We would like to remind our viewers of the upcoming PA (Pericope Adulterae) Conference to be held on April on April 25-26th, 2014 on the campus of Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary in Wake Forest, NC. Six scheduled speakers will be presenting papers with various positions on the authenticity of the PA section as usually found in John 7:53-8:11.

CSPMT is now examining the particular form of the PA in relation to the rest of the text found outside the PA section for Byzantine group identification. We are finding a direct corollary relationship between the PA section and the text outside of the PA. The so called M7 PA profile being found predominant within the Kappa Byzantine Kr/fam. 35 groups of manuscripts, while the M5 profile is for the most part limited to non-Kappa Byzantine manuscripts. The other major PA group is M6 and is found within most Kx manuscripts, which Von Soden described as textually standing between K1 or (Omega) M2 and Kr/fam. 35 M7 manuscripts.

More details on the PA Conference and speakers presenting at the conference can be found at the following announcement link provided below.

March 27th, 2014

Byzantine NT Manuscript Chart

CSPMT is making available a quick reference chart for a general understanding of the majority of Greek NT Gospel manuscripts. Our Byzantine NT manuscript chart may be downloaded from the link provide below. It is also found in our resources area.

The chart is divided into Kappa or K manuscript groups and non-Kappa MS areas separated by the black Kappa demarcation line. The primary Byzantine PA (pericope adulterae, M2-M7) profiles are also shown. A Kappa Byzantine manuscript usually contains a higher percentage of core Byzantine readings than a non-Kappa Byzantine manuscript. The highest percentage of Kappa readings are also typically found as a group within the Kr/fam. 35 group on the right side of the chart.

Both the Kappa Kr/fam. 35 and non-Kappa Byzantine lectionary manuscripts are found in the two extreme edges of the chart. The majority or non-Kappa Byzantine lectionary manuscript group is found on the left side of the chart in the non-Kappa area while the Kappa type in addition to being M7 or Kr/f35, contains a substantial minority of lectionary manuscripts.

Any particular manuscript number within the chart is based on the standard Gregory-Aland numbering system for Greek NT MSS. In addition, these particular MSS are meant to reflect a small transmissional overlap in the textual profile of such transitory groups or MSS between certain PA profiles and manuscript groups. Please address any further questions you may have regarding our Byzantine NT Manuscript chart to:

Byzantine Manuscript Group Chart

March 19th, 2014

Byzantine NT MSS and the Antoniades Greek New Testament

The 1st edtion of the Ecumenical Patriarchal Greek NT was published by the Holy Synod in Constantinople in 1904 and slightly revised in 1912. Prof. B. Antoniades utilized many lectionary and non-lectionary mss. for production of the Orthodox Greek New Testament. The following list contains the known Byzantine manuscripts collated and utilized in the production of the Antoniades Greek New Testament.


Chalki Monastery: nos. 1 3 4 7
Chalki Theology School: nos. 1 2 5 6.
Chalki School of Commerce: nos. 167 168 169 170 171 172 173

Holy Sepulchre Rectory: nos. 11 272 649

St. George’s at the Adrianoupolis Gate: 2 Mss. one complete the other incomplete. (The complete MS is now now as at the Holy Patriarchate as skevophylakion no. 1 (Gregory-Aland L791). This is the only known Greek biblical manuscript from the collection of St. Sophia Church in Constaninople.

(St Demetrios of Tataoula) 2 Mss. (one dated 1550).

(Mt. Athos)
Koutloumousiou: nos. 62 64 65
Karakallou: nos. 11 13
Xeropotomou: no. 122
Iviron: nos. 1 3 9 10 11 12 13 638 and another not known.
M. Lavra: nos. A72 84 86 93 95 97 105 111 113 116 117 118

National Library of Greece: nos. 67 167 186

Library: nos. 9 12 33 40 95 152 186 236 245 and some from Anasaseos.

(St. Petersburg, Russia)
Two lectionary mss. on dated 985 the other from 1034.



Chalki School of Theology: nos. 9 13 14 15 16 177
Chalki School of Commerce: nos. 26 35 59 74 96 133

(Mt. Athos)
Kouloumousiou: no. 80
Karakallou: no. 62
Iviron: nos. 24 25 28 29 30 37 39 52 57 60
M. Lavra: nos. A 65 B 64 74 79 90 Γ 123


Chalki School of Commece: nos. 26 96
Rectory of the Holy Sepulchre: no. 303

(Mt Athos)
Koutloumousiou: nos. 82 83 163 356
Iviron: nos. 25 60 589 594
M. Lavra nos. A 91 B 5 18 80 Ω 16 in additon to (8 others unknown).

In a following article, CSPMT will provide further details about some of the better known manuscripts found in this listing.

March 15th, 2014

Von Soden and Byzantine Kappa MSS

When Herman Von Soden wrote his book on the text of the New Testament text published (1902-13), he spent considerable time in it regarding the text form found in the Byzantine minuscules which he identified by their particular profile or type of PA (pericope adulterea) section usually found in John 7:53-8:11.

Von Soden found that there were three basic types or text forms of Koine/Kappa or K MSS which stood out from the rest of the Byzantine MSS. These three types or groups were: 1) K1 or Ω usually contained the μ2 PA profile. This K1 grouping contains a total of approximately 50 minuscules and was considered by Von Soden as the oldest of the four main Koine Byzantine groupings. 2) The Ki group, was mainly centered today around Byzantine uncials E(07), F(09) and H(013). Von Soden did not mention minuscules with this group, but CSPMT has found many related minuscules which had formally been thought as members of Von Soden’s Kx grouping. They are obviously related to this minority Kappa grouping. The PA profile within Ki is the μ5 form. The Ki group contains nearly 80 manuscripts and is textually slightly different but separate apart from Von Soden’s K1 or Kx groups. 3) Kx was Von Soden’s third and largest grouping of Kappa MSS. It comprised the mass “Majority” of K minuscules found textually between his K1 and his newly discovered "Kr revised" or Kr. The Kx MSS were found usually to contain the μ6 PA profile and contained between 400-500 total MSS. Von Soden held that Kx had developed from K1 due to internal textual factors. Kx μ6 was likely massed produced at the scriptorium at the famous Studion Monastery in Constantinople. Today, this Kx text form is found represented within the HF (Hodges-Farstad) Majority text (1985) rev. and in the RP (Robinson-Pierpont) Byzantine text, 2005 rev. However, in the case of the RP Byzantine text, the μ5 PA profile was utilized which is usually found in Von Soden's minority Ki/Kappa MS grouping and is usually found more often within non-K text Byzantine MSS.

Outside of the three basic K text forms, μ2 5 & 6 PA profiles was Von Soden’s μ7 form. It was found in the large grouping called as “Koine revised” or Kr by Von Soden. Today, it is also known as Byzantine family 35 after minuscule 35, a complete 11th cent. Kr NT MS. This text form was found produced throughout the Byzantine Empire especially at the holy Hodegon Monastery scriptorium in Constantinople especially from the time of the Empire’s restoration, (1261-1453). The μ7 PA profile is found with great textual control and fidelity in all Kr/fam. 35 MSS and also found in several lectionary manuscripts which contained the PA section produced during this time period of time. This Byzantine text form serves as the basis for the BGNT(Byzantine Greek New Testament) at CSPMT.

CSPMT has found for the most part information provided by H. Von Soden on Kappa text MSS and groupings to be for the most part accurate regarding his general classification of these groups within the Byzantine text type. Exceptions to this would be his lack of accuracy in collation of specific manuscripts and his theory for Kr /fam. 35 as necessarily revised from an earlier K-text or Kappa text form. However, his information and research regarding these Byzantine Kappa text groupings and the PA profile found in them remains a standard to today.

February 28th, 2014

CSPMT associate John Larocque has revised and updated the Gospel and Acts of Apostles collations. All major editions of the Majority traditional text of the Greek New Testament have been included.

Rev. & updated Larocque Gospel and Acts of the Apostles Lectionary Collations: Gospels and Acts

February 26th, 2014

We are now making available Dr. Wilbur N. Pickering's 4th rev. to his Identity New Testament Text book. This book is now held as the classic defense of the Traditional text of the New Testament as held by CSPMT. Though the directors and associates affiliated with CSPMT may have individual preferences regarding the best particular form of the Majority/Traditional text of the New Testament, we all share in common the superiority of the New Testament as contained in the majority of Byzantine Greek New Testament manuscripts as opposed to the minority manuscripts and their dependent editions and versions.

Dr. Pickering's Identity of the NT text 4th edition is now available here or in the resources section.

February 24th, 2014

CSPMT associate John Larocque has completed a new collation comparing the Apostles (Apostolos) Greek lectionary with all major editions of the Traditional text of the Greek New Testament. Also, included in the collation study are two other earlier editions of the Apostolos lectionary for comparison. We are now working on collations of the same in the Pauline and Catholic Epistles.

The new collation is available in pdf for download in our collations section under the Apostles Lectionary Collation: Acts of the Apostles. A link for the collation is also provided below.

Apostolos Lectionary Collation: Acts of the Apostles

February 17th, 2014

CSPMT is announcing the launch of our new web discussion forum. It is a forum dedicated for the discussion of a wide range of topics related to the Byzantine Majority text of the Greek New Testament. Discussions will be primarily focused upon textual issues involving variants, Byzantine manuscript groupings and other questions involving the traditional text of the New Testament.

You may find our new discussion board by clicking on CSPMT discussion forum on our homepage side menu. We are also providing a quick link provided below. We hope that our interested viewers will take the opportunity to ask questions to the directors and associates and regarding the work of CSPMT and more about the Byzantine Majority text of the New Testament. Thank you.

Discussion Forum link:

Paul Anderson

February 15th, 2014

CSPMT has revised and updated our Byzantine Greek New Testament (BGNT) base text. It is now available for download at our website or may accessed from our homepage sidebar menu. There will be only minor additional changes to the BGNT base text before the apparatus begins to be added.

The BGNT base text is based upon the consensus reading of the Kr/family 35 group of Byzantine Greek New Testament manuscripts. It was the dominant Byzantine text form within both the continuous and lectionary text forms especially during the later Byzantine Empire under the Paleologue dynasty.

February 8th, 2014

A newly revised and expanded Majority text edition collation is now available and provided at our Jan. 31st news posting. More translatable variations have been included between the editions in our updated collation. Our viewers will find a high degree of overall textual unity between all traditional text editions of the Majority text of the Greek New Testament.

Such important theologically important passages such as the ending of Mark 16:9-20, 1 Timothy 3:16, the fasting passages of Matthew and Mark and the changes made by critical text based editions and versions to the Lord's Prayer are never questioned or called into doubt by any edition or version included in this collation study. This is also the case for any Byzantine manuscript group as opposed to the few old minority text uncials.

In other news, CSPMT is nearing completion for our final revision to our Byzantine Greek New Testament or (BGNT). We will be posting it in the near future at both CSPMT and our future edition site at

January 31st, 2014

CSPMT has recently completed a new Majority Text collation comparing all major editions of the traditional text of the Greek New Testament. This link below provides a pdf for the collation study.

New Majority Text Collation

January 21st, 2014

The St. Sophia lectionary, (Gregory-Aland no. L791) has been added to the online Virtual Manuscript Room(VMR) at the Institute of New Testament Textual Research at Münster, Germany. This is the only lectionary manuscript that has been proven to have been in the St. Sophia's Church archives prior to the fall of Constantinople in 1453. It was described in our earlier news posting from Dec. 10, 2013. This manuscript is held in the Treasury collection at the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate in Istanbul, Turkey. It was originally gifted to the Orthodox Patriarchate Joseph II during his attendance at the Council of Florence.

CSPMT has reviewed the text type form of this important Byzantine manuscript and has found it to be from the "Majority" φ lectionary text type with some Byzantine Kappa mix. This is most likely due to the manuscript being produced during the lectionary text transition period during the 1200s to the more highly Kappa text form and during the Latin period prior to the Byzantine Empire restoration under the Paleologue dynasty.

January 17th, 2014

The pdf included below is our review of an article by Daniel B. Wallace on the (Majority Text) theory recently and published in the updated volume on New Testament Textual Criticism edited by Bart Ehrman and MIchael Holmes entitled, The Text of the New Testament in Contemporary Research, (2013), pg. 711-744.

We welcome our your comments and feedback regarding this review. A link is provided below for the review and recent notice of the paperback edition recently published where the article appears.

CSPMT review of Wallace MT theory article.

January 7th, 2014

The PA Symposium & the PA in Byzantine New Testament Manuscript groups

PA Symposium Announcement:
On April 25-26th, 2014, the Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary (SEBTS) in Wake Forest, NC will be sponsoring the symposium on the Pericope Adulterae (PA) found in John 7:53-8:11. Several textual scholars who will be presenting papers and their positions on the PA regarding questions revoving around the sections originality to the text of the Gospel of John.
Participants: Dr. Dr. Maurice A. Robinson, Dr. David Alan Black both of SE Baptist and Tommy Wasserman of Sweden, Dr. Jennifer Knust of BU, Dr. John David Punch of City Church, Denver, CO and Dr. Chris Keith of St. Mary’s College, London. Information is provided on the symposium on the link below:

The question on the originality of the PA is widely debated in New Testament textual criticism. However, Byzantine New Testament manuscripts and lectionary MSS containing the PA are not united in the specific form of the PA or even if they include it at all. The profile forms of the PA found in Byzantine manauscript groups is a rarely discussed topic. In the early 1900’s, Herman Von Soden categorized most of the main Byzantine manuscript groups by the form of the PA found in each grouping. This section of Scripture was found most often among the Byzantine MSS at Jn 7:53-8:11. Von Soden subsequently abbreviated and indicated by this section by the μοικαλις (μ) sigla for ‘adulterous’ and by profiles (μ1-μ7).

CSPMT lists below most of the Byzantine manuscript groupings by their particular PA profile found in associated group members:

Kappa Byzantine PA groupings:

Group K1 (μ2) - Very small early Kappa PA group clustered around the Byzantine uncial Omega (045). Von Soden considered this group as the oldest Kappa grouping of MSS.

Group Ki/E-text (μ5) - Kappa PA grouping including uncials E(07) and H(013). Many associated minuscule MSS formely classified by Von Soden as either K or Kx and which contain the μ5 PA profile. This group not only stands apart from K1-μ2 but also in its μ5 PA profile from the larger Kappa Kx group. PA profile found in the Robinson-Pierpont (RP) 2005 Byzantine Textform.

Group Kx (μ6 ) - A very large Kappa PA grouping of MSS. The μ6 PA profile often occurs with some admixture but with the μ6 profile dominating in this large grouping. Kx has often been mistakenly classified or grouped within Kappa groups other closely related groups such as Ki or K1, yet the PA profile differences between the three groups are discernible with each having its own specific PA profile. Kx forms the bulk or majority of minuscule MSS outside of Kr/f35. PA profile found in the Hodges-Farstad (HF)1985 Majority Text.

Group Kr/f35 (μ7) - The largest specific Byzantine PA grouping of MSS. It includes many Gospel lectionary MSS with the same PA profile. Thought by Von Soden to be a late Byzantine rescension due to its numerous later dated MSS and its lectionary equipment found within this grouping. The PA profile found in all Kr/f35 Mss are decidedly μ7 with the least internal variation found in the section among known Byzantine MS groups. PA found in the BGNT base text and Dr. Wilbur N. Pickering's f35 text.

Non-Kappa Byzantine PA groupings:

Group Λ (μ4) - A minority Byzantine PA grouping centered around uncial Λ(039). Contains approx. 30 MSS total.

Group Π (μ5) - Includes subgroups a and b. An early Byzantine group thought to represent the text of John Chrysostom in John and Victor of Antioch in Mark. Centered around Byzantine uncials Π(041) and Cyprius(017). Includes over 100 minuscules within the grouping. Fam. Π contains its own very specific profile of the μ5 PA profile.

Group M (μ5) - Rather large Byzantine MS group including subgroups 10 27 & 106. Its μ5 PA profile is discernable from the similar μ5 PA profile found in both Kappa Ki/e-text and fam. Π. Nearly 50 MSS in this PA grouping.

Group 1216 (μ3) - A small weaker Byzantine group in terms of shared Byzantine readings among group members. The μ3 profile is rare among Byzantine MSS. It is distinct from the S-text or Omega/μ2 PA profile.

Group 22 (No PA)

Group 1424 (No PA) - Cluster 1424 does not contain the PA. However, the group also includes the small Byzantine subgroup 7 which includes a form of the μ6 PA which is quite close to the majority lectionary PA profile.

Group Ak (No PA) - The commentated Gospels centered around GA 15.

Lectionary MSS - The PA is found in many Gospel lectionary MSS. The majority PA profile is a rather separate independent profile quite similar to that contained in the continuous text Group 7 MSS. Also, there is a large minority of lectionary MSS which contain the μ7 PA profile and are Kr/f35 MSS outside the PA as well.

Special note: Non-Byzantine MS groups f1 and f13 contain the PA as well. The PA profile (μ4) is found in f13 members with its placement at the end of Luke, while f1 contains the Nestle/Aland critical text μ1 PA profile at the end of John. This PA profile was called by Von Soden as the oldest and closest to its original form.

December 31st, 2013

The Byzantine/Majority Text & CSPMT

The mission and main goal of CSPMT or (Center for Study and Preservation of the Majority Text) is expressedly stated to study and preserve all Byzantine New Testament manuscripts and share with the world information concerning Byzantine Majority text manuscripts of the Greek New Testament. The CSPMT organization logo fraktur capital M represents and pertains to ALL Byzantine/MT manuscripts, including the minority Byzantine text groups and not just specific text forms or editions like the TR or a particular Byzantine/MT manuscript grouping.

On occasion, the question comes up how can CSPMT funtion and agree a non-profit organization being multi- denominational in our directorship and associate composition. In addition, how can we agree upon what exactly is the autographic text of the Greek New Testament as an organization. In response to such questions, it must be first noted again that the primary goal and objective of CSPMT is study and preservation of ALL Byzantine/Majority text manuscripts and not just from a single grouping, or text form.

There are several positions represented within CSPMT regarding which traditional or Majority text form comes closest to the “autographic” text of the Greek New Testament or “ausgangstext”. Our overall agreement at CSPMT is not based upon Church polity lines, but that the majority of Greek New Testament manuscripts preserve the Holy Word of God best and foremost among its various text forms. There are those who see the TR or “textus receptus” as closest to the autographic text, yet others which see the Kappa (Byzantine text) form as closest and others with another Byzantine textual preferance. It must also be brought to notice, that throughout time of the Byzantine Empire, various text forms of the traditional Byzantine/MT text were utilized for both personal devotion and for public liturgy as well. There are also weaker Byzantine manuscript groups in terms of number of “core” Byzantine readings as in groups Pi and Phi for example but the essential traditional text readings remain even in these weaker Byzantine/MT groupings for qualification as “Byzantine” text manuscripts.

We would lastly like to thank and wish all of our viewing audience at a properous and blessed year in 2014. Our regular monthly viewing audience includes regular interest from over 60 nations and continues to grow. We are thankful to God for the opportunity share our research at CSPMT regarding God’s Holy Word as found in Byzantine/MT New Testament manuscripts.

May God bless all our readers in the coming New Year.

December 18th, 2013

Herman C. Hoskier & Byzantine Manuscript Groups in the Book of Revelation

The first detailed study of manuscripts in the Apocalypse was complted and published 1929 by Herman C. Hoskier. Hoskier’s lifetime work on Greek manuscripts in the Book of Revelation involved a complete collation of the Apocalypse as well as a detailed study of the most significant manuscript groupings found in the Apocalypse.

Three Byzantine manuscript groups stood out in the Hoskier study on the Apocalypse. The first of these, was the large B or Q text currently known as the K-text or the standard Byzantine Koine form. It was orignally named B or Q after the uncial manuscript Codex Vaticanus 2066 (Gregory-Aland, 046) of the 10th century. This large manuscript group of the Apocalypse forms the majority of manuscripts extant for the Book of Revelation. This Byzantine manuscript grouping has between 80 and 100 manuscripts including some smaller separate groupings with obvious textual relationship to the main K-text grouping. The K-text form of the Apocalypse was followed in the majority of cases in the Hodges-Farstad(HF) Majority text and less so in the case of the Robinson-Pierpont(RP) Byzantine text form in the Apocalypse.

The next significant Byzantine grouping in the Apocalypse is the Andrean or Hoskier’s Erasmian(e-text) grouping. This grouping has close relationship to the patristic commentary on the Apocalypse by Andreas of Caesarea. This grouping is more fractured in terms of it group readings among members than the larger K-text grouping. Erasmus utilized manuscripts of this grouping for his editions for the Book of Revelation. The TR will typically be quite close to manuscripts included by Hoskier in his Erasmian or e-text grouping. However, there are readings in which the TR appears independent of the core readings found in e-text Greek manuscripts of the Apocalypse. The Robinson-Pierpont(RP) text also utilized e-text readings in combination with readings from the larger Q or K-text in the Apocalypse.

Another larger noticable Byzantine manuscript group in the Hoskier study was called the Complutensian(c-text) grouping named after the text form of the Apocalypse found in the Complutensian Polyglott. The majority of Byzantine Kr/family 35 manuscripts which contain the Apocalypse seperately or in conjuntion with other books of the New Testament including entire New Testaments will typically contain the c-text form in the Apocalypse. Not nearly as large as the K-text form, the c-text of the Apocalypse is nevertheless more unified in its group “core” readings for the entirety of the Book of Revelation. Dr. Wilbur Pickering of CSPMT, completed Hoskier’s examination of this Byzantine text grouping in the Apocalypse and collated many new manuscripts containing this text form in Apocalypse MSS. The consensus of Complutensian(c-text) MSS of the Apocalypse serves as the base text for the Book of Revelation in the new Byzantine Greek New Testament(BGNT) by CSPMT.

For those interested in further details regarding Hoskier's work in the Apocalypse and Byzantine manuscripts in the Book of Revelation can freely download the Hoskier study from our website resources.

December 10th, 2013

St. Sophia's Lectionary: An important Byzantine Lectionary manuscript

In the year 1438, Patriarch Joseph II of Costantinople was in Ferrea, Italy for the coming Council of Florence for re-unification talks with the Roman Catholic Church. While in Ferrara on July 6th, 1438, Patriarch Joseph was handed a highly illuminated Greek lectionary manuscript by Proto-monk Arsenios of Crete at the behest of the Venetian authorities at (Candia) modern Herklion, Crete.

This lectionary was sent back to Constantinople to the archive at the ancient St. Sophia Church. The Church archivist noting its inclusion in the Patriarchal library in a ending folio in the manuscript. Discussion on Roman Catholic and Orthodox re-unification broke off in the ensuing discussions at Florence. Patriarch Joseph passing away due to illness and extreme age during discussions. The lectionary manuscript remained in the Church archives for the next hundred years. In the year 1568, the lectionary manuscript gifted to the former Patriarch was gifted to the founding of St. George Church near the wall of Adrianople in Constantinople where it remained at least until the year 1904.

In 1904, the St. Sophia lectionary manuscript was examined in collations for the Ecumenical Patriarchal Greek New Testament produced by Prof. Basilios Antoniades with his other collegues and team of collators. After this, the St. Sophia lectionary manuscript was entered into the archives of Ecumenical Patriarchate in Istanbul where it remains until today.

Textually, the St. Sophia lectionary is the standard Phi-Byzantine type or what Prof. Antoniades termed the slightly earlier text form contained in the majority of Greek lectionary manuscripts. More specifically, it is Byzantine as he confirmed but contained more non-Byzantine readings than later dated lectionary manuscripts. It is more specifically the non-Kappa variety of Byzantine text. This important and historic lectionary’s specifications are listed below for those further interested in this valuable manuscript.

St Sophia Lectionary:

Repository: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Istanbul, skevophylakion no. 1, (Gregory-Aland no. L 791)
Presentation date: To Patriarch Joseph II and the St. Sophia's Church: July 6th, 1438
Former location: Church of St. George near the Edirne Kapi (Adrianople), Constantinople
Presenter: Hiermonk Arsenios (Monastery of Antony tou Marula, Crete)
Written: late 11th or 12th cent.
Scriptorium: Possibly Studion scriptorium, Constantinople or Crete.
Dimensions: 340x260cm, text 235x180cm
Folios: 417
Format: 2 column
Format: Daily (le)
Texttype: Phi-Byzantine or Majority/standard type.

November 26th, 2013

Walters manuscripts from the ETS/SBL Tours:

We are listing below the manuscripts displayed during the recent ETS/SBL Conference in Baltimore, Maryland.

CSPMT would also like to take this opportunity to thank Dr. Lynley Herbert and the rest of the staff at the Walters Museum for their cooperation in allowing attendees of the conference to view these valuable manuscripts in their collection. We would also like to thank the Freer Gallery in Washington, DC for the Codex W/Freer manuscript tour also held this past weekend.

MSS displayed at the Walter's Museum manuscript tour:

W. 739 - Coptic fragment, 8th cent. Text: (Exodus 21:16-35a (fol. 1) and 23:5b-21a (fol. 2).
W. 526 - (Gregory-Aland 1531), 13th cent. Gospels.
W. 533 - (Gregory-Aland 1022), 12th cent. Acts & Epistles.
W. 535 - (Gregory-Aland L1029), dated 1594, scribe: Met. Luke of Cyprus.
W. 539 - Armenian Gospels (famous T'oros Roslin Gospels), dated 1262.
W. 592 - Arabic Gospels, dated 1684.
W.7 - Latin Ottonian Gospels, c. 1000.
W 850 - Ethiopic (Ge'ez) Gospels, 16th cent.
W.917 - Slavonic (Old Believers) Apocalypse, dated c. 1800.

November 21st, 2013

Tomorrow during the annual Evangelical Theological Society meeting this year being held in Baltimore, MD, the Walters Art Museum in association with CSPMT will be displaying several Byzantine Greek New Testament MSS at the museum. Biblical manuscripts of the New Testament in other languages will also be on display. Those attending the annual meeting may still signup for the afternoon tours at 1:00 and 2:00PM at the registration desk, 2nd floor of the Baltimore Hilton.

November 14th, 2013

Byzantine NT MSS at the Walters Art Museum

Next week, on Saturday, November 23rd during the Annual AAR/SBL Conference to be held in Baltimore, MD, the Walters Art Museum and curator of manuscripts & CSPMT associate Dr. Lynley Herbert in cooperation with CSPMT will hold four manuscript tours of the Walter’s biblical MS collection. Biblical manuscripts in several languages will be on display including Greek NT manuscripts.

Among those Greek manuscripts to be on display are three Byzantine NT manuscripts: GA 1022, a 14th century parchment manuscript containing Acts and the Epistles; GA 2374 a Gospel, Acts and Epistles manuscript and L1029, a very beautiful manuscript in a magnificent state of preservation. Detailed descriptions of these manuscripts and others may be found on the links provided below as well as others on the Digital Walters Manuscript website.

The text-type form of all three manuscripts are as follows: GA 1022 is K or the majority Kappa Byzantine text form in Acts and the Epistles. GA 2374 is Von Soden’s (Kx) or Kappa-x with a small amount of non-Kx Kappa surplus readings found throughout. The lectionary manuscript L1029, is Kappa-mix and textually quite similar to the early (Venetian) Saros-Saliberos editions published in both Venice, Italy and Athens prior to the textual revision of the late Fr. Demitrios Tzerpos in 1986 for the Apostoliki Diakonia Press and the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

Links provide below show all three Greek MSS to be displayed during the Conference tours and may be freely downloaded for research purposes:

(W. 533) GA 1022

(W. 525) GA 2374

(W. 535) L1029

November 5th, 2013

The Freer Manuscripts in Washington DC on Display

CSPMT would like to remind our viewers who are attending the annual ETS/SBL Conferences in Baltimore this year that the Freer manuscripts including Codex W(032) will be on display again in Washington, DC from November 16-Feb 16th.

Details regarding inclusion on the SBL tour of the Freer Gallery Manuscripts maybe be obtained by contacting SBL directly. A brief Freer Gallery announcement on the upcoming display may be seen through the link provided below.

November 4th, 2013

Significant Byzantine text variants

Often when hearing about the main differences between the Byzantine/Majority text and most critical Greek text editions we frequently hear about PA in Jn 7:53-8:11, the so-called LE in Mark 16:9-20 and others like Acts 8:37 and 1 Jn 5:7-8. While these textual variations are viable and important differences between the two, other important variants between the critical text CT i.e. NA/UBS and the Byzantine/Majority texts are rarely discussed within NT textual criticism today.

Another important variant less discussed is the Matthean Doxology found in the ending of the Lord’s Prayer, Mat 6:13. Once again, no Byzantine/MT MS grouping or Traditional text edition is found lacking this highly significant variant. CSPMT has found when a Byzantine MS group is united in a significant variant like the Matthew Doxology only f1 or f13 (as in the Matthean Doxology) along with the few MSS which form the textual basis of the CT i.e. papyri, Aleph, B etc. are found in opposition. Some would counter with the age factor once again as the main issue. However, older MSS are not necessarily better, nor does their relative age prove their superiority or that they contain the less contaminated or autographic reading. It appears then that the Matthean Doxology was excised as a Jewish prayer conclusion early on by certain Christian scribes for being too Jewish for inclusion. The same can be said about it’s alternate form in Lk 11:1-5. It is also possible early scribes harmonized Matthew through the ending found in Luke which omits the Matthean Doxology ending. Yet, Matthew is clearly a “Kingdom” Gospel and Luke less so in thematic emphasis. Therefore, the autographic inclusion in Matthew therefore appears certain. Its omission and/or being relegated as a footnote found in the critical Greek GNT text and the minority of MSS is surely one of the most significant variations in the New Testament.

Another important textual variation between the Byzantine/MT text and the critical text of the GNT is found in Mat 17:21 regarding Jesus’ response to the Apostles regarding the need of prayer and fasting in response to demonic possession. Once again, no Byzantine text MS grouping is found lacking the variant where again f1 and f13pt. omit alongside the older so-called Alexandrian uncial MSS and their dependent modern editions and versions. Most of the same MSS and critical text dependent versions also omit its parallel (Mk 9:29). This variant is one of the most significant in terms of theological variation found between the two types of Greek New Testaments.

The last variant we will discuss in this particular article is Mat 18:11. This highly significant textual variant is undisputed among Byzantine MS groups. Only Western based TR and Eastern Orthodox text & versions have retained it as undisputed in its authenticity. Again, most older uncial MSS and critical Greek GNT editions along with their dependent versions omit or footnote its inclusion disputing its authenticity. Another commonality often found in these variations between the critical text and Byzantine/MT traditional text of the GNT is that Origen and Eusebius’ are also found to change and/or omit the variant in question such as in this variant’s case. There is an obvious textual connection between Origen and Eusebius critical text readings in many of these significant variations between the critical and Byzantine/MT traditional text of the Greek New Testament.

We hope to cover more significant variations between the Byzantine/MT text and the critical eclectic text of the Greek New Testament in some future articles. We again direct our reader’s further questions to CSPMT regarding these variants or others you may have to our org. email at:

October 26th, 2013

CSPMT occasionally receives requests and questions regarding our position on Bible versions and translations.
We would like to remind our readers that regardless of our position regarding such translations, the primary purpose of CSPMT continues to be the study and research of Greek New Testament manuscripts represented by Byzantine and other traditional text Greek New Testemant manuscripts.

Our position regarding various Bible translations and various versions continues to be a unified preference in our Board of Directors and by our associates for translations and versions based upon or having the most textual similarities with the majority of Greek New Testament manuscripts in the New Testament. This would include the King James, New King James versions of the English Bible and translations in other languages based upon the TR i.e. textus receptus. We continue to reject and disagree with readings contained in the various Greek New Testament critical text editions and or versions based upon them in the New Testament. These would include the NIV, NASB, ESV, NLV and other minority text based versions.

CSPMT would also at this time like to thank all our viewers for turning to CSPMT for the latest information regarding Byzantine MSS and the Majority text. Our viewing audience on our website reaches over 70 nations among our viewing audience and continues to expand. We continue to ask your prayers and support in continuation of our plans for the Byzantine Greek New Testament(BGNT) as we continue to refine and ready the base text for the addition of the critical apparatus.

Thank you.

God Bless

October 25th, 2013

Von Soden & the Byzantine Koine (Kappa) Textform

CSPMT has recently focused research upon the Kappa and more specifically Von Soden’s Koine text form which includes the majority of manuscripts in the Byzantine text tradition. One of the main purposes of Hermann Von Soden’s landmark book entitled, Die Schriften des Neuen Testaments in ihrer ältesten erreichbaren Textgestalt, 1902-1913, was to identify and examine the mass of Byzantine Mss. he termed as K or Koine, but now more commonly termed Kappa. In this study, Von Soden focused primarily upon the PA or pericope adulterae (Jn 7:52-8:11). He divided the PA form in several forms that could assist in identifcation and grouping the various forms of Kappa Mss.

Von Soden identified primarily four basic forms of the Koine or Kappa Byzantine text-type. First, was the smallest group Von Soden called K1 centered around Omega(045) and S(028) which he theorized as the oldest form of the Koine text. The PA for K1 as Von Soden called it is μ2. The second group of Koine Mss. identified by Von Soden’s view was the Ki text form. This rather large group maintains an μ5 profile in the PA. This important Ki grouping is also called the E-text form after 8th century uncial E/07 Codex Basiliensus. In addition, uncial H/013 is also included in this group. CSPMT has recently discovered that Ki or the E-text actually comprises of the many Kappa mss. with contain an μ5 PA profile and seen before by Von Soden to be part of the largest textual grouping of Koine mss. he called Kx.

The minority Ki/E-text contains many significant variants that clearly sets it apart from the larger Kx grouping. Von Soden had considered Ki and Kx as separate K text forms while others textual critics like Wisse have considered them a part of large Kx group. Even though it contains the numerous μ5 PA profile, this PA profile considered by Von Soden also includes rather large and significant non-Kappa Byzantine groups like Group M and family Pi when combined contain having over 150 group members. Von Soden did not factor out non-Koine/Kappa text mss. from Kappa members in his examination of the μ5 PA leaving inflated numbers specifically tied to the Kappa text form. CSPMT has found that Von Soden’s Ki/E-text or Kappa μ5 is a separate minority grouping containing its own specific textual charecteristics apart from other non-Kappa Byzantine μ5 mss. and the much larger Kx Kappa grouping. While there may be close relationship with both Ki and the Kx Kappa text forms, they are quite different in specific variations within the overall text of the Gospels.

The third large Kappa/Koine group which Von Soden examined was the Kx group. It contains no uncials and its text form is also not found in the lectionary text tradition. Von Soden utilzed the symbol x for the mass of mss. which were neither K1 or Ki and not Kr or his Kappa revised text today often called family 35 after minuscule 35. The Kx grouping is primarily concentrated around the μ6 PA profile with over 200 MS members. Many 10th century minuscule mss. are extant for the group and it was mass produced at the famous Studion Monastery in Constantinople for the early centuries prior to the Latin takeover of the city during the Fourth Crusade. The HF or Hodges/Farstad Majority text edition 1982/85 rev. utilized the μ6 PA in their stemmatic reconstructed text of the PA utilizing Von Soden’s unified K and more specifically Kx when K was divided within his text. Due to the HF text utilizing the μ6 profile of the PA and united K and Kx when K divided was significant as the μ6 PA profile retains a unique majority within the diverse spectrum of Kx mss.

The fourth Koine/Kappa grouping Von Soden discovered and described he called Kr or Koine revised. Von Soden’s theory of this gouping was that it comprised the latest and most revised Koine text form. This is debatable due to its obvious non-dependency or textual assimilation from other Kappa text forms even among its earliest extant mss. within the grouping. The Kr or the fam. 35 textform exclusively maintains the μ7 PA profile and contains nearly 260 continuous text mss. and an additional 50-100 additional lectionary members which utilized the textform both inside and outside the PA. It also contains a large percentage of the extant complete New Testament mss. It is a highly controlled and precise Kappa text form in which Von Soden found little internal variation within its text among group memebers. It was massed produced during the post-1261 Restoration of the Byzantine Greek Empire at Constantinople at the Holy Hodegon Monastery scriptorium. Many highly decorated Kr/f35 mss. were gifted by the Byzantine emporors to various monasteries at Mt. Athos. Surpringly, the Kr/f35 Kappa type now stands with more group members than Kx due to its inclusion of the many lectionary mss. that have been recognized as belonging to this Kappa grouping. This text form serves as the basis for CSPMTs Byzantine Greek New Testament(BGNT) edition.

Von Soden’s study of the Koine text form shows the critical importance of the PA with identifying the rest of the textform of Byzantine mss. in the Gospels. Manuscripts with a given particular form of the PA share textual charecteristics outide the PA with other mss. The Byzantine Koine or Kappa text form includes vast majority of Byzantine New Testament mss. Hopefully, this brief review of Von Soden’s four primary Koine/Kappa Mss. will help familiarize our readers more with the with the majority of mss. within the Byzantine text tradition. He correctly saw the importance of the PA section in John as a important textual identification method for identifying the remaining text in the Gospels. While his specific manuscript citation is often questionable with over generalization and error as noted by various NT textual critics, his research on various Koine/Kappa text forms was also instrumental for further research and study of these various Byzantine text manuscript groups. The PA as widely debated as to its originality within the text of John. However, its overall importance should not be overlooked in identifying the various related groups of Byzantine mss. of the Gospels.

The Byzantine Koine/Kappa text form includes vast majority of Byzantine New Testament mss. CSPMT is dedicated to further study of its various groups and individual textual charecteristics.

October 17th, 2013

Codex W on display at the Freer Gallery

Beginning in mid-November Codex W or Codex Washingtonensis(032) will be on display in the Peacock Room of the Freer Art Gallery in Washington DC. Taking advantage of this viewing opportunity, the Annual SBL (Society of Biblical Literature) in co-operation with the Freer Gallery and CSPMT will be offering 1 tour including other Freer Gallery biblical manuscripts on Sunday, November 24th at 2:15PM. Buses will be departing the BCC (Baltimore Convention Center) where SBL will be held this year at 12:00PM. A bus will go the the Mall in Washington, DC for the afternoon tour beginning at 2:15PM and return to Baltimore at 5:00PM from the Mall in DC.

CSPMT encourages those able to attend the annual SBL/ETS meeting this year in Baltimore to include this tour for their activities. Arrangements must be made prior to the conference. The bus fare ($30.00) must be paid directly to SBL for this tour and is limited to 15 people.

October 1st, 2013

Codex K (Cyprianus) at the BnF

The recent addition of Codex K(017) or Cyprius to the National Library of France-Paris (Gallica) digital site is important. The BnF has added this manuscript among other Greek New Testament manuscripts to its site in recent months.

Codex K(017) is an uncial New Testament Greek manuscript written by monk Basil between a date estimated from the 9th to the 11th century among best estimations. It was brought from France in 1673 from Cyprus. Its text has been examined by several textual scholars including Hermann Von Soden, Kirsopp & Silva Lake among others. Von Soden recognized it as related to Codex Pi(041) and a relative of Codex Alexandrianus(02)as members of family Pi. Codex Cyprius was viewed as a slightly weakened member of family Pi towards the text the TR or the Kappa Byzantine New Testament manuscripts.

The textual characteristics of Codex K and other family Pi manuscripts are peculiar. From unusual word order and syntax constructions not found in most other New Testament manuscripts to singular or rare readings seldom found among other Byzantine New Testament manuscripts. Codex Cyprius is a slighly weakened family Pi Byzantine manuscript and is especially close to GA 489 and GA 1219 within the family Pi grouping. A complete collation of Codex K has not been completed since a rather incomplete collation was done on its text by Tischendorf and Tregelles in Leipzig (1850).

It is hoped that the inclusion of GA 1079, a textual relative of Codex Cyprius, in the apparatus of our BGNT Greek NT will shed more light on the full textual nature of family Pi manuscripts such as Codex Cyprius. They are textually valuable and misunderstood. The addition of Codex Cyprius at the BnF allows for closer inspection of this valuable Byzantine text manuscript grouping and is a welcome online addition for an increasing number of people worlwide interested in Byzantine Greek NT manuscripts. We have provided a direct link below to view this valuable manuscript more closely at the BnF.

September 19th, 2013

CSPMT has updated our site with our final draft for the Byzantine Greek New Testament base text for our edition. We encourage our readers to update your download of the BGNT base text. We thank our readers for your patience during this final review process. You may go directly to the BGNT online text site through the side tab on our homepage.

September 4th, 2013

Bounty of Byzantium & recent Byzantine text additions to the British Library Digital Collections

The most recent additions to the British Library digital manuscript project and website has added several highly illustrated Byzantine text manuscripts of some importance. In this article we will briefly overview some of the continuous text and lectionary manuscripts most recently added to the BL Digital Library. The URL where these manuscripts may be viewed will be given at the end of the article.

Burney 19 (GA 481) - A 10th century Gospel manuscript highly illuminated manuscript containing illustrated headpieces and initial with beautiful icon illustrations prior to each Gospel. This manuscript was formally held at Escorial, Spain then later owned by Charles Burney the art historian. It finally came into the possession of the Library in 1818. After it was collated and by Scrivener for his work containing collation of 20 NT manuscripts held at the British Library. It text is mainly Byzantine Kappa with some remaining family Pi readings most likely contained from its early production in the 10th century. The manuscript contains very little lectionary marginalia.

Burney 20 (GA 482) - A Gospel manuscript written in (1285). This manuscript was also brought by the British Library from Charles Burney's son Charles Parr Burney in 1818. It is more plain in illumination than GA 481 yet textually similar being primarily Kappa with many family Pi readings as well. It was written by the scribe Theophilus and is thought to have originated from Constantinople. GA 482 contains many second hand corrections to its initial text. It too was included in Frederick Scrivener's collation of 20 MSS held at the British Library. According to Scrivener it stands textually close to GA 489 a "core" family Pi manuscript held at Cambridge. CSPMT concurs with this evaluation on Scrivener's conclusion regarding its text form. Lectionary synaxarion and menologion readings in the margins were added by a later hand.

Add MS 26103 (GA 697) - A Gospel manuscript written approx. 13th cent. It was supposedly discovered in a village near Corinth and bought by the British vice-counsel at Athens in 1865. A very beautiful Byzantine manuscript written with highly illuminated headpieces with only one icon folio with John and scribe Prochoros found prior to the Gospel of John. There are also no Eusebian Canon tables prior to the Gospels. Its text a a very heavy mixture of Byzantine groupings and is termed Group 22a by F. Wisse in his Claremont Profile classification and is textually GA 22 which stands at a considerable distance textually from both the basic Kappa and TR (textus receptus) profiles. It had been examined by Bloomfield, Burgon, Gregory and Scrivener though it was not included in his collation of MSS held at the British Library. CSPMT plans to utilize the text of GA 697 as a consistent witness in our critical apparatus of the BGNT (Byzantine Greek New Testament) edition.

Add MS 35030 (GA 2099) - Gospel Manuscript dated 13th cent. Contains illuminations and colored headpieces with somewhat mutilated icons of the Four Evangelists. This manuscript also contains the typical Eusebian Canon tables found prior to the Gospels. It was acquired from Cyprus in 1896. Its text form is the majority Koine-x (Kx) type with a m6 PA found in the usual location in the Gospel of John. Its text therefore stand in close proximity to the majority of Byzantine Kappa manuscripts with the usual amount of surplus readings typically found in Kx manuscripts.

Add MS 37002 (GA 2278) - Gospel manuscript dated (1314-15) and written likely either at Cyprus or Corfu. It contains rather mutilated colored icons of the Four Evangelists with accompanying headpieces. The Eusebian Canons are also included at the beginning of the Gospel book. The lectionary synaxarion was added at the end after John. Its text form is quite interesting as a member of the Pi subgroup (b) or simply Gr. Πb. It stands textually therefore at textually at a considerable distance from the majority Kappa groups and TR. It is quite possible that the Pi(b) grouping of Byzantine manuscript originated by the hand of a single scribe at Corfu, Greece at the later half of the 1220s-early 1300s. Other members of its grouping include GA 365 679 1113 1463 among several others. CSPMT will also utilize a member of its textual group for the BGNT critical apparatus.

Add MS 39591 (GA 548) - A Gospel manuscript from the (XI cent). It was bequeathed to the British Library by Robert Curzon's daughter in 1917. It was acquired earlier by Baron Robert Curzon from the monastery at Mar Saba near Jerusalem in 1834. It was later examined by Burgon, Scrivener and Gregory. The manuscript does not contain the usual Eusebian Canons but with reference to the Ammonian sections. The Gospel icons of the evangelists were improved and some added at a later time. Textually, the manuscript is from the Koine (Kappa) grouping of manuscripts with surplus readings. It contains the m5 PA profile found in the usual location in the Gospel of John.

Add MS 39603 (L 233) A Gospel lectionary evangelistarion (euaggelion) manuscript written in 970 by the scribe Michael Notarios. The possibility exits also that it was written for Byzantine Emperor Alexios II Comnenos (1180-1183). It contains illuminated initials and ornaments with covers (possibly original) made of blue velvet with finial ornaments in gold and golden cross on the front cover. This manuscript is a beautiful rare cruciform manuscript with its entire contents written in a cruciform pattern. It was 1st held at Pantokratoros Monastery at Mt. Athos and later at Xenophon. It was brought to England among several other biblical manuscripts by Baron Curzon in 1837. Scrivener and later Gregory examined its text. No collation has been completed on its text. Textually, it belongs to the dominant Byzantine Phi-type similar to the majority or standard text of most Greek lectionary Gospel manuscripts.

These manuscripts may be observed as part of the British Library's Digital collections at the following URL:

CSPMT would like to thank the gallery of Samuel Fogg of London for making possible the British Library's addition of these wonderful examples of Byzantine manuscripts to their digital online collections.

August 19th, 2013

CSPMT & the BGNT online edition: An overview of Byzantine Mss. & the Byzantine/Majority Text form.

With CSPMT posting its projected apparatus for the BGNT online edition, questions arise as to what exactly constitutes a Byzantine manuscript and/or related printed edition of the Byzantine or traditional text of the Greek New Testament. Hopefully, this brief article will address some of the questions surrounding this subject matter.

In the past, the Byzantine text form as cited in critical text editions has typically been limited to a minimum number of consistently cited individual manuscripts for various reasons. Most often within the popular Nestle-Aland critical text editions, the citation of this text form has been generally indicated and/or limited by use of the German fraktur sigla capital K or Μ standing for Kappa or the Majority text form. The recently published NA28th edition consistently cites in the Gospels only one Byzantine continuous text manuscript GA 1424 and two lectionary manuscripts. These stand textually at the greatest distance from the main Kappa/Byzantine text form. The same holds true generally for Byzantine text manuscripts cited in the Epistles and in the Apocalypse in the recent critical text editions as well.

The majority of Byzantine text manuscripts of the Greek NT will not differ textually more than 15-20% in all selected variant readings. The manuscripts which test closest yet outside the parameters of the Byzantine/Majority text form are f13 (Ferrar group) and f1 (Lake group). The Byzantines which contain textual blocs testing most distant from the main Kappa groups (Kx Kr/f35) are groups 7/1424 or φ (majority lectionary text) in the Gospels of Mark, Luke and family Π subgroup (a) in the Gospel of John. In the Epistles, the K-text and Kr/f35 text forms dominate the Byzantine text form. In Revelation or the Apocalypse, the Ma (a) and the Complutensian (c) text forms contain the Byzantine majority text yet textually still remain in proximity with the Andreas and the TR (textus receptus) or KJV text of Revelation.

Today, the question of the TR (textus receptus) along with the King James version and their textual proximity to the majority of Byzantine text manuscripts comes up on occasion. The claim has been made by some textual scholars from the critical text position that the TR contains approx. 1800 differences and therefore the TR therefore stands at a considerable textual distance from the common Kappa manuscript text form as contained in the majority of manuscripts. It is also a fact there are 2000 such differences between the TR and the commonly used Antoniades or Orthodox Greek NT text. In addition, there are also 1186 differences between the majority Kappa (K or Kx) form utilized by Robinson-Pierpont (edits. 2000 & 2005) and Hodges-Farstad (edits. 1982 & 1985) and the Kr or family 35 Byzantine text form as utilized in the BGNT base text. However, what these critical comments fail to mention is that these differences individually or taken in totality are of less translatable significance than those differences between the critical text editions (Westcott-Hort, Nestle-Aland/UBS) and any other traditional text edition be it TR based or a Byzantine/MT text based edition. The Orthodox, MT and TR editions grouped together as a whole therefore stand together much closer textually than their combined proximity to Western/Caesarean groupings such as f1 or f13 groups and other well known older uncial manuscripts such as Aleph, B, and D and contemporary critical text GNT editions. In the end, it is not the weight i.e. actual number of the differences but the textual significance of the variants which bring a much clearer picture of the real textual inter-relationships of the Byzantine manuscripts, TR and critical text editions.

It is especially notable that some studies have been made examining certain well known uncial manuscripts and the differences with the Byzantine Greek NT manuscripts. As noted in the footnote of (ENTTC) or Encyclopedia of Textual Criticism by Robert Waltz under the article on Text-types, note no. 28, Codex Vaticanus is shown to disagree with the Byzantines an average of 67% out of approx. 990 variants examined. However, the Byzantine manuscript overall differences are no more than 3-4% aganist their 64-67% disagreement with Codex B (03) or Vaticanus. The W-H and all contemporary critical GNT texts’ agreement with Vaticanus (03) remains closer with one another than with Aleph (Sinaiticus) or any other Greek NT manuscript. Therefore, there apparently remains a lingering over dependency upon the uncial manuscript Codex Vaticanus despite shifting eclectic trends and differing methodologies (CBGM) utilized in determining critical GNT text readings today such as in the editio critica major or ECM edition. The same holds true for English or other contemporary versions based upon these critical text editions of the Greek NT.

To summarize, there are not enough viable differences between the more eclectic based TR and the Byzantine text based MT editions to state they differ that significantly. The same conclusion can be reached when examining the unity of the Byzantine text form within the manuscript tradition in both continuous text and lectionary type manuscripts of the Greek New Testament. Though occasional differences occur between the majority and minority Byzantine groups of manuscripts, there remains in the end an overriding textual unity in place called the Byzantine or traditional text form of the Greek New Testament.

Paul Anderson

August 14th, 2013

CSPMT has placed our newly revised and completed BGNT base text on our text site at:

We have also added a listing of our online edition's projected critical apparatus witnesses with a pdf available in our new apparatus tab. In addition, a links page has been added with additional important resources for New Testament manuscript and Byzantine studies.

Paul Anderson

July 23rd, 2013

The Byzantine Greek New Testament Edition (BGNT) Online

CSPMTs newly completed base text for the Byzantine Greek New Testament (BGNT) is now available for download at our online edition's domain at

We will be adding variant readings to the online edition's critical apparatus in the near future. You may find more detail regarding plans for the online edition of the BGNT at our the new website. The online edition's website is also linked under the RSS feed on the CSPMT homepage.

Paul Anderson

July 15th, 2013

Byzantine Greek NT (BGNT) Update: An examination of the Base Text

CSPMT has now completed the base text for the Byzantine Greek NT edition. We have decided to first place the completed base text on our text website in the coming weeks.

The base text or comparison text for the online edition is based upon the Byzantine Kr/family35 MS text form. Dr. Wilbur N. Pickering has completed his study of this grouping with over 10 years of study and collation of many f35 MSS for the production of our consensus base text. Even though Kr or family 35 is only the second largest Kappa text grouping among Byzantine MS groupings, it is by far the most cohesive and controlled form of the Byzantine text form. There are over 250+ MSS in the grouping in the Gospels alone. In addition, there are nearly 100 more MSS that are of this type for the Apostolos section including many containing the Apocalypse. Out of 60 complete NT MSS there are at least 13 complete NT MSS, which are of the Kr/family 35 profile for the entirety of the NT. The family group profile is the Complutensian or (c) type in the Apocalypse. In addition, there are at more than 50 known Kr/f35 based lectionary MSS found among both Euaggelion and Apostolos MSS. The text form dominated manuscript production at the famous Hodegon Monastery in Constantinople under the Paleologues after the Restoration in 1261.

The textual cohesiveness and scribal fidelity within this Byzantine Kappa MS text type is unparalleled as many previous scholars have found in previous studies on this textual grouping. All family members exhibit the M7 profile in the PA. Within the PA or (pericopae adulterae) section, all Kr/f35 MSS agree with no more than 3 variations (including single letter differences) from the family profile in this section. Gregory-Aland or GA 47 is an extremity member within the grouping having a majority M6 profile with M7 mixture in the PA. Perhaps the oldest and most well known manuscript within this Byzantine Kappa grouping is 11th century GA 35 held at the BnF-Paris being also a complete NT MS. In addition, there is GA 83 and little known GA 1435 (M. Lavra) which is 11th century and possibly earlier. GA 1435 is a noteworthy example of this text form for having no 2nd hand corrector or other corrections to the text, yet being nearly perfect textual example of this grouping with an early form of Byzantine manuscript iconography present with it. The textual variant exhibiting the most dispute within the Kr/f35 grouping is the reading at Acts 12:25 with the majority reading, “into Jerusalem” or the family minority reading “into Antioch”.

CSPMT will be adding periodic collations to the online base text edition beginning with variants selected from all previous major Byzantine/MT editions including the Antoniades/Ecumenical Patriarchal GNT. In addition, the Stephanus (1550) TR and Nestle-Aland’s readings will be included into the apparatus. Later, it will be expanded to include Byzantine uncials such as A E Μ Ν Π Σ Φ Ω as well as Alex./Caesarean uncials Aleph, B & C and many additional minuscule and lectionary MSS. Each section of the NT will be adequately represented in the apparatus by long overlooked Byzantine minuscule MSS.

We are pleased and thankful to God for the assistance of associates for the work and research they are doing in preparation for the online edition's launch in the near future. We will be updating our readers again soon on our expected launch date and website domain for the online BGNT edition.

June 14th, 2013

Coherence Based Genealogical Methodology(CBGM) and Byzantine NT MSS.

The current textual methodology currently being utilized by Institute for New Testament Textual Research (INTF) in Münster, Germany for the production of the Editio Critica Major (ECM) is the Coherence Based Genealogical Methodology or CBGM. In this article we will briefly look at this methodology and its implications regarding Byzantine/Majority NT manuscripts.

While earlier textual methodological tools like the Claremont Profile Methodology CPM focus were primarily focused upon classifying Byzantine manuscripts into its various textual groups, CBGM now focuses upon broader goals such as defining inter-manuscript relationships and determining the text of the NT closest to the Ausgangstext or 1st text. These goals proposed for the methodology by its proponents regardless of ones textual position or priority. The computer generated data retrieved results in the production of stemmatic relationship charts for comparison of individual and inter-group textual relationships.

Inherent within the usage of CBGM are particular drawbacks and limitations within the methodology. First, CBGM assumes a particular relationship can be determined between given manuscripts which may or may not be directly related in a given stemmatic lineage. In addition, if a textual critic assumes that Codex B is most like the Ausgangstext or (A) due to date of composition or combination of other factors, then all manuscripts more recent will contain a higher degree of contamination or emendation than Codex B from which all other manuscripts descend from. The same could be said even when utilizing a Byzantine Kappa text manuscript being in the (A) position or closest to the so called 1st text within the stemmatic tree.

CBGM has not been utilized outside of the General Epistles thus far. CBGMs usage for the ECM and NA28th edition resulted in 34 changes from the NA27th to the recent NA28th editions of which 13 changes in its text now reflect the RP-Byzantine Textform 2005 reading. However, the overall text of the General Epistles in the ECM/NA28th still overwhelmingly reflects the text of Codex B (Vaticanus) and to a lesser degree the text of Aleph (Siniaticus) versus any Byzantine text form or manuscript.

The position of CSPMT towards the usage of CBGM is one of caution at this point. We are awaiting further possible changes made in the ECM through its usage as a textual methodology for the Greek NT text. At this time we are seeing only small changes resulting through the use of CBGM from prior editions of the Nestle-Aland GNT. CBGMs value therefore remains largely in the hands of the perspective position of the textual critic utilizing the methodology remains thus far largely an unproven theoretical methodology regarding its value to the further study of Byzantine NT manuscripts.

June 10th, 2013

New Lectionary Manuscript

CSPMT would like to thank Fr. Maximos of Simonopetra/Holy Cross for his information regarding a new unregistered Greek lectionary manuscript. In October of last year, we mentioned information of a newly recognized MS at Simonopetra Monastery at Mt. Athos. Incomplete information was available at that time. CSPMT has now newly acquire complete information on this new biblical manuscript.

This newly found manuscript is a complete daily lectionary manuscript was written by scribe and Metropolitan of Buzau (Wallachia) Luke the Cypriot. It is dated 1628/29 by its colophon. It is one of many other biblical manuscripts written by this priestly scribe. We will shortly be providing complete details of this manuscript for registration at INTF in Germany.

June 7th, 2013

The Claremont Profile Methodology(CPM) & Byzantine NT MSS

In December of 1967, Drs. Paul McReynolds and Frederik Wisse presented their groundbreaking study regarding the many long neglected Byzantine minuscule NT MSS. This study was presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature (SBL) held in Chicago that year. Both were students at Claremont School of Theology under the well know text critic and scholar Dr. Ernest C. Colwell.

Prof. McReynolds and F. Wisse’s study examined over 1,300 Byzantine text manuscripts through a revolutionary new methodology called the Profile Methodology. This new text critical methodology utilized textual profiling through targeting particular variations from the TR in three chapters in their study of Luke chapters 1, 10 & 20. In total 196 variation units from these three chapters were examined. Variation from the TR was noted in these variants which allowed easy and quick manuscript groupings to be established from the mass of minuscule MSS of the Greek New Testament. In total around 10-12 major groupings were identified majority of Greek minuscule NT MSSS and within the Byzantine text form.

There has been recent criticism of McReynolds & Wisse’s (CPM) study due to supposed limitations of the study in the small number of total variations examined and its focus being solely upon Luke’s Gospel. However, within the Byzantine minuscule MS groups there is less than 25% internal variation between these various Byzantine NT MS groups. Therefore, such criticism has not taken into account the overall relative internal consistency between the many different main groups within the Byzantine NT textform. In addition, the more recent study by Prof. Dr. Roger Omanson utilizing (CPM) in Mark’s Gospel in large part verified the group results found earlier in the McReynolds and Wisse study. However, limitations are inherent in the study on the side of its examination of non-Byzantine MSS due to their larger internal variation among noted text variant units.

In summary, CSPMT has found the Claremont Profile Methodology (CPM) extremely valuable in our study of various groups and textual issues regarding the minuscule groupings of the Byzantine text form. It has also proved useful in identifying the more precisely the textual relationship between certain continuous text NT MSS and the lectionary MSS. CPM therefore is an invaluable methodological tool for the study of the Byzantine text MSS in their more particular group variations. Our website has available both the McReynolds & Wisse CPM study and the Omanson study of Mark for more individual study of the majority of Byzantine NT MSS.

In our next update article we will examine and review the current text critical methodology, CBGM or the Coherence Based Genealogical Methodology which is being utilized in the production of the Edition Critica Major (ECM) edition.

May 29th, 2013

N. Saros edition (1754) of the Greek Gospel lectionary.

CSPMT has added an early Venetian type of the Greek Gospel lectionary to our website. The Greek publishing house of N. Saros was an early liturgical publisher in Venice, Italy. The Greek publishing house of N. Saros published liturgical texts in Venice from the mid-1600s with reprints published through the early 19th century.

The Venetian type of lectionary, dating from the editio princeps of 1539, remained textually fairly stable until the revision made by the Apostoliki Diakonia in 1968. The Venetian Greek Gospel lectionary editions were all more highly Byzantine- Kappa in their textual variations than the current Apostoliki Diakonia edition which was primarily revised towards the text of the Antoniades Patriarchal GNT.

This lectionary edition is found on our website in our manuscripts and texts area section and among the other Greek Orthodox texts.

May 22nd, 2013

The Byzantine text manuscripts in the Apocalypse

In this brief article we will examine the main Byzantine text manuscript groupings for the Book of Revelation. This book historically was not included in the lectionary text of the Orthodox Church. However, it is included in the Antoniades Greek New Testament 1904/1912 rev. The Apocalypse contains a large percentage of the notable variations found between the TR or textus receptus and the Byzantine/MT text editions. This is due mainly to the number of differences found between the two manuscript groupings both editions are based upon.

The Byzantine manuscript tradition in the Apocalypse is basically divided into ten main manuscript groups additionally with numerous subgroups. The main Byzantine group is called Ma or the K-text form. This grouping led by 046 a Byzantine uncial manuscript as well as many minuscule manuscripts of the Apocalypse. This grouping forms the basis for the Hodges-Farstad MT text for Revelation and in the majority of cases though with notable exceptions and variations in the Robinson-Pierpont text. This grouping stands out in noticeable textual variations in Byzantine text splits from Complutensian and Erasmian Byzantine text forms.

Another major manuscript group is called the Mc or Complutensian text group. This text form was utilized by Stunica the Cretan for the Complutensian Polyglot. This grouping is found in a number or the majority of Kr/f. 35 manuscripts which either contain the complete GNT (being a large share of complete NT MSS) or in manuscripts containing only the Praxapostolos. There are some manuscripts in this group which only contain the Apocalypse as well. It is the prominent text form of the Apocalypse in manuscripts found at Mt. Athos especially those dated after the restorations of the Byzantine Empire at Constantinople in 1296. Its consensus text will form the text of the Apocalypse in the Byzantine Greek NT of CSPMT.

The text of the TR or textus receptus is most akin to the Andrean or Erasmian text grouping of manuscripts called Me or the Andreas grouping. It is also called f. 88 along with its various subgroups. The text of the TR shows obvious relationship to both the f.88 grouping and the text of Andreas’ Commentary on the Apocalypse of the 7th century. The text of the Apocalypse as found in the TR has often been criticized as late or unimportant but its text basis has obvious ancient origins as well. Other Byzantine text groups of note for the Apocalypse are the Oikoumenios text form called Mh written by Oikoumenios of Caesarea in either the 990s or contemporaneously with Andreas as held by some scholars. The the text of Arethas of Caesarea’s commentary also called Mf dates from the early 9th century and contains a number of closely related minuscule manuscripts in its grouping.

All of these Byzantine manuscript groups of the Apocalypse and few others stand at a considerable distance textually from the Old uncial text form found in Aleph, A (Alexandrinus) and C and which is found in critical editions of the GNT such as the UBS and Nestle-Aland editions.

May 14th, 2013

The Byzantine GNT: Critical Apparatus Witness List

CSPMT is now completing preparations for publication of a new scholarly Byzantine Text edition of the Greek NT. Each witness in the above listing has been carefully considered for critical apparatus inclusion. We are planning a complete accessible online edition to be posted on a reserved domain for the online edition. A hardcopy edition is also planned for publication. The following list provides the primary witnesses for the critical apparatus for both editions. Additional changes to this list prior to publication are expected to be minor.

Base Text - Kr/fam. 35 consensus text
Group Kx - GA 3 8 14 15 260 275 1110 1120 1452
Group K - 461 1691
Group Λ - 199
Group M - 10 1455
Group 22 - 22 697
Group Π - 1079 1113
Group 7 - 7 1084 1685
Group 1424 - 1424 1675
Group 13 - 826
Group 1 - 1
Kmix - 597 799 1012
Byzantine Uncials - A E M U N Φ Σ Ω
B Text - Aleph B
Papyri - P45 P75
Critical Text - NA28th
Orthodox Text - Antoniades 1912 rev.
Majority Text edits. - HF 1985 RP 2005
Textus receptus - Stephanus 1550
Lectionary MSS - L 381 L 1029 L 1107
Lectionary edits. - Glykos 1754 AD Press 2005
Church Fathers/Commentaries: Chrysostom, Theophylact and others.

Acts & Epistles:
Base Text: Kr/fam. 35 consensus text
K - 049 0124 82 93 457 1720
Kc - 479
I (Western) - 88 1611 1739
H (Alexandrian) - 33 81 1175 1881
Uncials - Aleph A B
Critical Text - NA28th
Orthodox Text - Antoniades 1912 rev.
Majority Text edits. - HF 1985 RP 2005
Textus receptus - Stephanus 1550
Lectionary MSS - L 1153 L 1159
Lectionary edits. - Saliberos 1908 AD Press 2007
Church Fathers - Chrysostom Theodoret Theophylact

Base text: c (Complutensian) consensus text.
a (Kappa) - 046 18 82 93 201 1719
b - 250
d - 88
e - 209
f - 91
g - 620
h - 1006
i - 94
Old text Uncials - Aleph A
Critical Text - NA28th
Textus receptus - Stephanus 1550
Orthodox text - Antoniades 1912 rev.
Majority Text edits. - HF 1985 RP 2005

CSPMT expects the print edition of the BGNT to be handy size similar to most UBS GNT editions. The variant units considered are also expected to be similar in number to the UBS editions but with clear and consistent Byzantine MS citation never previously achieved in a Greek NT edition. We encourage and ask our readers prayers for our continued work and preparations for both editions. Thank you.

May 7th, 2013

CSPMT has added Dean John Burgon's two volumes, The Last Twelve Verses of Mark and Causes of Corruption of the Traditional Text of the Holy Gospels to our resources page on our website.

May 2nd, 2013

Byzantine NT Manuscript Scriptoriums – The Studion Monastery and atelier.

Another topic that came up for discussion at the recent NT in Byzantium symposium at Dumbarton Oaks was the manuscript ateliers of the Studion and at the Hodegon Monastery. This article will give a brief overview the Studion Monastery of Constantinople and the atelier or calligraphy school. it was well known for in its production of early high quality decorative NT manuscripts.

The Studion Monastery dedicated to John the Forerunner and its atelier was formed at a very early period in the history of Constantinople. Its influence of monastic lifestyle was later evident at Mt. Athos and beyond. The monastery was founded by Studios a Roman patrician who settled in Constantinople in 462. The Abbott St. Theodore the Studite founded the monastery’s atelier or calligraphy school for the production of manuscripts by 798. By the by the time of St. Theodore’s death in 826, the atelier had grown into the largest NT manuscript production atelier in Constantinople. With victory of Orthodoxy over the iconoclasts in 843, the atelier at the Studion Monastery began to dominate the production of minuscule NT MSS in the early minuscule bouletee and pearl script styles with manuscripts soon appearing that were highly illuminated as well. It is supposed that the Uspenski Gospels (GA 461) dated 835 and written by Nicholas the monk dates from this early period of the Studion’s atelier. Textually, most all manuscripts produced at this time at the Studion Monastery’s atelier were either continuous text manuscripts of Kappa type especially Von Soden’s Kx type or the φ standard non-Kappa Byzantine lectionary manuscripts. One common characteristic was their shared highly illuminated decorative work contained in both types of manuscripts.

Its appears therefore, that the early Kappa NT manuscript production in Constantinople paralleled the activity of the Studion Monastery’s atelier from the early to mid-800s to the fall of Constantinople to the Latins during the Fourth Crusade in 1204 when the Monastery was destroyed. The Monastery was somewhat restored after the restoration in 1290, but the scriptorium or atelier was never restored to its former glory. The text-type and script style of Byzantine manuscripts produced changed at the ascendency of the Palaiologos dynasty’s restoration to Constantinople in 1261. Another well known monastery and atelier soon regained prominence in place of the Studion Monastery, it was the Hodegon Monastery which we will examine more closely in our next article on the aleliers of NT manuscript production in the Byzantine Empire.

In other news at CSPMT, we have added Google’s website language translation bar in our side column menu. The dropdown arrow provides a listing of available languages. We hope this this new feature will assist our non-English speaking viewers and those who prefer the site in their language of choice. We apologize for any translation inaccuracies in the translation tool.

April 30th, 2013

INTFs T&T Cluster Tool: Its use and importance in New Testament textual criticism & the Byzantine text

The printed volumes of INTFs (Institute for New Testament Textual Research) Text & Textwert appeared in several volumes published mainly during the 1980s and 90s but were rather inaccessible for most people. They examined NT manuscript clusters and their relationships through various test passages and selected variant units for comparison.
The online T&T (Text und Textwert) clusters tool utilizes over 460 test variant units from over 2,000 manuscripts from the four Gospels. It was recently a topic of discussion during the recent NT in Byzantium symposium at Dumbarton Oaks. This is a general overview article on its functions and results. The following general observations may be made regarding the online T&T cluster tool and its use in comparing more NT manuscripts.

Operation of the T&T clusters toll is quite user friendly. There are two radial buttons to click for more general specific or strict manuscript groupings and two buttons for searching clusters of more distantly related manuscripts. The chosen manuscript is first selected and entered into the search area to the right of the word Manuscript. The Go! button is then selected for the results of the cluster search. The MT (Majority Text) percentage of variant units in each manuscript is given to the right of each selected manuscript.

The majority of Byzantine manuscripts or bulk MT manuscripts are derived from Von Soden’s K or Kappa text grouping of manuscripts as previously described in earlier articles. When utilizing the T&T cluster tool with various Kx or bulk Byzantine manuscripts the results are interesting. Most clusters searched in the strict cluster grouping results in fewer than thirty closely related manuscripts. This is due to be most manuscripts having a larger amount of surplus readings for each cluster within the Kx textual profile. This can be displayed by inputting a typical Kappa or Kx manuscript in the T&T clusters manuscript search area such as manuscripts 8 or 14 for example. On the other hand, searches made on Kappa r or Kr/fam. 35 manuscripts result in an abundant number of closely related manuscripts from a given search. For instance a strict search parameter made on manuscripts 18 or 83 results in nearly 200 closely related manuscripts with all matching above 97% of total variant units. Other Byzantine groups with members in groups 041, 1216, 22 or the M groups show having less than fifty closely related manuscripts. In addition, all Byzantine manuscripts contain above 75% MT (Majority text) for the test variant units selected in the T&T cluster tool. Family 13 contains an average of 70% MT readings while family 1 returns a reading of less than 60% Byzantine/MT readings form the test passages. It is also of interest that the so-called Alexandrian or “mixed minuscules” match at least 52% of total selected MT readings while B(03) or Codex Vaticanus matches the MT readings only 16.3%. Its own relationship to Codex Sinaiticus (01) is only 65% even without factoring in even more distant readings from the Gospel of John. The closest minuscule manuscript match with B(03) is 892 at 47.2%. P75 the most complete extant papyri has a 86.1% match with Codex Vaticanus while its relationship to (01) Codex Sinaiticus is much lower.

In summary, CSPMT recommends utilizing the T&T cluster tool for study and research in in NT text critical studies as well as for Byzantine NT art historians and illuminations specialists. The overall unity of the Byzantine/Traditional text is affirmed with most manuscripts being rather closely related while the older Alexandrian witnesses are left with few closely related manuscripts in their various clusters. Through use of INTFs T&T clusters tool a more comprehensive picture may be obtained for the researcher and scholar concerning the nature and inter-relationship of various Byzantine manuscript groups. The link for the T&T cluster tool is provided below.

Paul Anderson

April 29th, 2013

Reflections on the Dumbarton Oaks NT in Byzantium Symposium: A new cooperative effort in NT Manuscript Studies.

This past weekend’s NT in Byzantium Symposium sponsored by Dumbarton Oaks in Washington, DC was a tremendous success. Experts from various fields of Byzantine NT manuscript studies gathered together and presented papers on several topics pertaining to Byzantine NT manuscripts. One particular observation which was of special interest to CSPMT was the need for Byzantine NT specialists in the fields of NT Textual Criticism, Art History and Illumination studies to increase communication and cooperation for a more comprehensive understanding of Byzantine Greek NT manuscripts.

A special case in point in this new cooperative effort was brought up by an Byzantine manuscript illumination specialist from Santa Clara University and her use of INTFs Text und Textwert manuscript cluster tool. While researching shared illumination features among high quality Byzantine NT manuscripts, this expert noticed that clusters of NT manuscripts could be more quickly and easily found and grouped through use of this text critical tool now available on the web. This useful tool helped her in finding closely related Byzantine NT manuscripts which shared common illumination features and characteristics among individual manuscripts. We will be examining this manuscript tool in an upcoming article more closley showing how it functions and relates to textual criticism and grouping of NT manuscripts through its utilization.

In the meantime, CSPMT would like to especially thank Dumbarton Oaks for this past weekends successful symposium here in Washignton, DC. We look forward to the continued cooperation and communication among CSPMT and specialists in the field of Byzantine Art & Illumination studies.

Paul Anderson

April 26th, 2013

2013 Byzantine Symposium: Dumbarton Oaks

The New Testament in Byzantium Symposium is currently being held in Washington, DC at Dumbarton Oaks starting today April 26th through April 28th. Today's session will include lectures by David Parker from the University of Birmingham and Georgi Parpulov of Oxford. Among the lecture topics will include the text and genealogy of Byzantine NT MSS along with a session on Byzantine lectionary MSS from Constantinople by Dr. Robert Nelson of Yale. Fr. Maximos of the Simonopetra Monastery will also be presenting a lecture on Pauline theology in Byzantium.

CSPMT founder and president Paul D. Anderson is attending this symposium.

April 23rd, 2013

Theodoros Hagiopatrites: A Byzantine scribe (1278-1301)

There is not much known of the early life of the prolific Byzantine scribe by the name of Theodoros Hagiopatrites. He is known from many signed colophons of NT manuscripts that he wrote from 1278 to the early 1300s. He is typically thought to have originated from Thessaloniki but this is debatable from one of the early manuscripts he wrote. GA 74 (Oxford, Christ Church, Wake 29), states that he wrote this particular manuscript from the village of Hagio Petrou in Arcadia in the south of Greece. Slightly later however he is found at the monastery of Phliokalos in Thessaloniki. It would appear therefore his name at least originated from the Arcadian village he had formerly been at and that Theodoros was itinerant in his literary activities as a Byzantine scribe.

Textually, the manuscripts written by this scribe are of a particular cluster of Byzantine type manuscripts from Von Soden's Kx Byzantine grouping. F. Wisse in his own study of this group later identified this particular cluster of manuscripts as cluster 74 after GA 74 as mentioned above. It contained he found a certain amount of surplus readings varying slightly from the usual Kx Kappa grouping of manuscripts. He categorized nearly 20 manuscripts which were members of Kx-Cl 74. Most of these manuscripts contained signed colophons at the end of each of these manuscripts giving Theodoros Hagiopatrites as the manuscript's scribe. Examples of these known written by Theodoros are GA 74 483 484 856 1594 among several others. These manuscripts exemplify Theodoros' exquisite hand with their decorative calligraphy and artwork which he apparently also added himself. He also wrote a NT manuscript for the wishes of Emperor Michael VII Palaiologos in 1280. Theodoros Hagiopatrites was one of the most prolific scribes in Byzantium outside of the scriptorium of the Hodegon Monastery in Constantinople in which Byzantine calligraphy and production of NT manuscripts would reach its apex.

Next in our series on Byzantine NT scribes we will briefly review the several generations of NT scribes of the Hodegon Monastery in Constantinople which contained probably the most well known and respected scriptorium in Byzantium.

April 19th, 2013

The Byzantine K-Text form in Acts & the Epistles

CSPMT has recently finalized our selection for the Majority or K-text Byzantine MS witnesses for the Book of Acts and the Epistles to be included in the critical apparatus of the the Byzantine Greek New Testament (BGNT) edition. Our brief overview of the the K-text in Acts and Epistles follows.

The Byzantine/Majority text in the Book of Acts and the Epistles is generally divided between the slightly dominant K-text form and the Kr or fam. 35 text form. There are slight variations in both the Book of Acts and the Epistles in what Von Soden had called group Kc. However, this group has little textual solidity in the same way that the dominant K and Kr MS groups maintain. The dominant K-text form is the MS cross over from the K-text found in the Gospels, There are far fewer MSS which contain both Acts and the Epistles than the Gospels alone. The Byzantine K text/Majority MS group compared with Kr/fam. 35 is smaller in terms of total number of MSS compared with its larger share of MSS found within the Gospel MS tradition.

The dominant K-text form is represented by early MSS such as 049 056 0142 among a few others. On the minuscule side are 82 93 457, 1720 among many others. In total there are over 200 K-text MSS which could be considered group members. There are also some complete NT MSS with the K-text form such as GA 1352 1359 and 1597. These MSS maintain the K or Kx profile in the Gospels and the dominant K-text in Acts and the Epistles. On occasion there will be surplus readings in these MSS but in general the K-text MS group remains rather easily detectable.

The second Byzantine text grouping for Acts and the Epistles is Kr or fam. 35. There are over 100 MSS within this grouping. Examples of this MS grouping are the minuscules 18 35 480 824 1072 1503 1637 1740 2554 2723 among many others. This group maintains an unparalled unity and coherance among all MSS within its grouping. Unlike the dominant K-text form, the Kr/fam. 35 group contains very few surplus readings. It should be noted that there are also Apostolos (lectionary) MSS containing Acts and the Epistles which are also closely related to the Kr/fam. 35 text-form. The majority of lectionary MSS in Acts and Epistles contain an independent text-form with slight variation from both the K-text and Kr/fam. 35 groups yet textually maintain an overall Byzantine text profile.

The consensus text from Kr/fam. 35 in the Book of Acts and the Epistles and compiled by CSPMT director Dr. Wilbur N. Pickering will be utilized for the base text of upcoming the Byzantine GNT edition.

April 17th, 2013

George Hermonymous of Sparta - Greek tutor to Erasmus

The Byzantine scribe, diplomat, scholar & lecturer George Hermonymous cir. (1450-1530) of Sparta moved to Paris in 1472 to become the 1st Greek instructor at the Sorbonne. Around 1500, among his students at the university were Erasmus, Reuchlin, Budeus and other future biblical scholars. George Hermonymous was also a diplomat for Pope Sixtus IV for the intended release of the Archbishop of York George Neville.

As a biblical scribe, Hermonymous' manuscripts of the Greek NT composed of what is known today as Byzantine Kx cluster 17. It is composed of GA 17 30 70 287 288 and other manuscripts which were written from an unknown exemplar. Textually, they comprise the majority Kx Byzantine text-form with some surplus readings. GA 17 is a Greek-Latin diglott manuscript and is marvelously illustrated. It is held at the BnF-Paris and is now found on INTFs Virtual Manuscript Room (VMR).

In the next series of brief articles on the Byzantine biblical scribes we will review the work of Theodorus Hagiopatrides.

April 12th, 2013

A new unregistered Byzantine NT manuscript: The Gospel Book of Nikephorus II Phocas

Among the more than 2,000 Greek manuscripts held at the Monastery of the Great Lavra at Mt. Athos are many NT manuscripts which have up until this time have not been registered with the Institute of New Testament Textual Research (INTF) at Münster, Germany. Some of these unregistered manuscripts are part of the sacristy treasures held in the skevophylakion at M. Lavra. One of these of special value is one of the most valued manuscript treasures on M. Athos, the Gospel book of Nikephoros II Phokas.

The Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas (cir. 912-969) was a benefactor in the founding of the Great Lavra Monastery on Mt. Athos. Athanasius the Athonite a friend of the emperor, received this valuable lectionary manuscript as a gift upon the dedication of the monastery in 963. It is covered in gold covers with many jewels encased in the covers. This Greek lectionary manuscript is a (lesk) type standard text MS with daily readings through Pentecost with weekend readings in the remainder of the manuscript. It is minuscule script with single column, 142 fols. and 35x24.5cm in dimension and is in an excellent state of preservation with many fine Byzantine illustrations.

CSPMT will continue to release information on these new unregistered Greek New Testament MSS in the near future.

April 9th, 2013

Two Late Byzantine scribes: Metropolitans Luke and Matthew (1596-1627)

Metropolitan Luke of Buzau and Metropolitan Matthew of Myra are two of the better known later Byzantine scribes which both of which wrote several NT MSS. CSPMT will be utilizing MSS by these two scribes in our Byzantine GNT edition.

Metropolitan Luke was a native of Cyprus and was appointed to Turkish province (southern Romania) of Wallachia at Buzau from 1583 until his death in 1629. He was not only a respected ecclesiastical official for the Wallachian court but was considered the most skilled calligrapher since the days of the Hodegon Monastery which had flourished in Constantinople nearly two centuries earlier. Bishop Luke’s signed a colophon on 28 different MSS. Two of these are preserved in the US at the Walters Art Museum (W. 535, L 1029) and its later sister lectionary MS is preserved in the Kenneth W. Clark coll. (Duke Univ. Gr 39, L 2138) which was his last written MS. He also wrote a Kx continuous text MSS preserved in Paris (BnF-100A, GA 289) written in 1623. Others are also preserved at Mt. Athos.

Metropolitan Matthew of Myra (city of St. Nikolaos) was also a well known ecclesiastic of the Wallachia Orthodox Church. He was appointed as abbot of Dealu Monastery after 1609. He was also a skilled Byzantine calligrapher and scribe as well. A friend of Met. Luke’s, Metropolitan Matthew began writing NT MSS near the same time as Met. Luke around 1596. There are several of Met. Matthew’s NT MSS preserved in Jerusalem such as L 1031 and L 1034 and at Mt. Athos among other repositories in the East. The last extant being a lectionary MS written by Met. Matthew of Myra in 1624 (M. Lavra, Ω 145). There are also two beautiful unregistered new NT lectionary MSS (nos. 1385 & 1386) found in the Mt. Athos monastery of Iveron written by both of these later Byzantine scribes.

Both of these later Byzantine scribes left behind a rich legacy of written NT MSS. Not only does the art work and calligraphy of scribes require further study but the text contained in these later NT MSS deserves further study and attention as well.

April 5th, 2013

Summary: Byzantine Text MS Groups for the Gospels

Continuous text Groups:

Group Kx (700+ MSS). Many subgroups, clusters and pairs. Members include: 2 8 14 89 202 478 1120 1203 1452 2224.

Group Kr/fam. 35 (250+ MSS). Consensus text to be utilized as the base text for the Byzantine GNT. Members include: 18 35 83 480 824 757 480 1072 1435 2554.

Group Π (150+ MSS). Divided into subgroups a and b. Members include: K (017) Π(041) 68 114 265 389 1079 1113 1216 1463 1816 2404.

Group M (50+ MSS) Divided into three main sub-groups Ma1 Ma2 Mb. Members include: 10 27 71 106 692 895 1194 1413 1455.

Group Λ or Lambda (20+ MSS) Members include: Λ(039) 161 262 561 199 262 1187 1555.

Group 22 (15+ MSS) Divided into subgroups a and b. Members include: 22, 697 1192 1210 1365.

Group 1216 (15+ MSS) Divided into subgroups a and b. Members include: 184 348 555 977 1216 1279.

Group 1424 (15+ MSS) Divided into subgroups 7 and 1424. (15+ MSS) Members include: 7 267 517 954 1084 1424 1495 1651 1654 1675.

Lectionary MS Groups:

Group φ or Standard text (200 + MSS) Includes uncial and minuscule MSS. Members include: L 12 L 69 L 381 L 387 L 425 L 991 L 770 L1022 L 1109 L1750.

Group Kr or fam. 35 text (50+MSS) Members include: L 14 L 86 L 118 L 221 L 698 L719 L 1097 L 1107 L 1761 L 1823.

Group K or Kappa mix (20+ MSS) Members include: L 1029 L 1036 L 1091 L 1814.

CSPMT will next provide a series of brief articles on the the primary Byzantine text groups for Acts, the Epistles and the Apocalypse.

March 29th, 2013

Byzantine Lectionary MSS – Kappa type

Continuing of our series on Byzantine lectionary MSS we now will now briefly examine the Kappa or minority type of Greek lectionary MSS. There are various Greek lectionary MSS included in the critical apparatus of the UBS (United Bible Society) Greek NT editions. No indication was given regarding their textual classification. Infrequent citation has led to confusion as to their precise textual identification of many lectionary MSS. Included among those MSS cited in the UBS 3rd & 4th rev. editions were L 1761 (Gospels) from Sinai and L 1159 (Acts & Epistles). The latter MS was also utilized by Prof. Antoniades for the Greek Orthodox Patriarchal edition of 1904/12.

CSPMT has determined that these various so called divergent lectionary MSS are from the Kappa Byzantine Kr/fam. 35 type. They display noticable textual varition from the standard or majority type of Greek lectionary MSS. There is little textual variation found from their continuous text counterpart MSS. However, there is enough variotion to warrant the possibility of differing exemplar MSS and to suggest possibly a wider and earlier production than has previously been theorized. Differences between fam. 35 Kappa type and the majority of Greek lectionary MSS are easily detected early
on within internal lections found in both Gospel and Acts & Epistles lectionary MSS.

As with other significant Byzantine MS groups, CSPMT will provide consistent citation of the minority Kappa fam/35 grouping from both the Gospels and Acts & Epistles in the critical apparatus of Byzantine Greek New Testament (BGNT) edition. Core represntative MSS have been selected from both sections for the edition's apparatus.

In our next and last article on Byzantine NT MS groups we will summarize the main groups and provide a listing of the core group representative MSS to be utilized in our upcoming Byzantine GNT edition. Any futher questions or comments on our series on Byzantine MS groups may be directed to:

March 27th, 2013

Dr. Wilbur N. Pickering & The Byzantine/Traditional text in Brazil

CSPMT director Dr. Wilbur N. Pickering was invited to speak in a recorded session to a group of pastors the weekend of March 22-24 in Valinhos (Campinas), Brazil. It was well received and plans are in place to continue speaking around Brazil in other locations on the primacy and preservation of God's Holy Word in the form of the Byzantine/Traditional text.

Work continues in our preparation for publication of the Byzantine Greek NT. We give thanks to God for the reception and interest in the Byzantine text and its various MSS that is occurring around the world. We encourage our readers to spread the word and support for CSPMTs ministry.

Paul D. Anderson

March 22nd, 2013

Acts-Epistles (Apostolos) Lectionary MSS: The Majority Group

In continuation with our series of articles reviewing various Byzantine manuscript groupings we now will review the majority or standard text grouping of Acts-Epistles or Apostolos lectionary manuscripts.

Little textual information is available on these important Greek manuscripts and even less than Greek Gospel or euaggelion lectionary manuscripts. There has been no information provided in the UBS critical Greek GNT editions utilizing lectionary Acts and Epistles manuscripts regarding their Byzantine text group affinities. Even citations of Apostolos lectionary manuscripts given have not been consistent in UBS editions. The siglum or symbol for this type of lectionary manuscript in the Aland's Kurzgefasste Liste being (lae) for Acts-Epistles lectionary manuscript. The Greek Ecumenical Patriarchial or Antoniades GNT (1904/12 rev.), also utilized several Apostolos lectionary manuscripts for this edition. It may be assumed both Gospel and Acts-Epistles lectionary manuscripts were included in the introductory description of the two primary manuscript groupings. One being described as Byzantine but less strongly as the other minority group more strongly Byzantine or (Kappa) in Western textual terminology.

CSPMT has recently found similar textual patterns in the Apostolos lectionary manuscripts as Prof. Antoniades had expressed in the EP edition's introduction. There is a majority or standard Byzantine group that is non-Kappa and another minority grouping which is strongly Kappa and of Kr or family 35 type. The manuscript dating of this group is quite similar to the Gospel lectionary manuscripts, yet without substantial uncial manuscripts extant for Acts and the Epistles. The earliest complete (lae) manuscript dates currently dated by INTF from the 10th century (L 156) while the uncial Greek-Coptic diglot L 1575 is only partial including Acts and some of 1 Peter. In addition, Apostolos or Acts-Epistles printed lectionary editions are divided between a Kappa mix type as found in early Venetian editions (1540-1900) and the later revised editions more similar to the majority Apostolos manuscript grouping due to textual affinity with the Antoniades GNT utilized by Prof. Tzerpos in 1986 for revision of the Apostolos Greek lectionary text.

The early citation of passages and variants included in Acts-Epistles majority grouping of manuscripts type clearly demonstrates evidence as to their Byzantine origins. Greek Church Fathers such as Chrysostom and Greek commentary writers like Theophylact validate this group's origins as being purely Byzantine. Though possibly developing as a service book later in date than its Gospel counterpart, its origins were certainly prior to the 10th century. There is no Byzantine fam. 1424 or type φ profile evident for the Acts and Epistles to compare though Byzantines like GA 440 and GA 945 are textually quite close in Acts and the Epistles to this group of lectionary manuscripts. However, any theory placing their textual origins dependent upon or with an influence of Caesarean/Western or Alexandrian manuscripts is tenative at best from our research. This group of Byzantine manuscripts therefore has early and independent origins.

Next in this series on Greek lectionary manuscripts will follow two brief articles describing the minority Kappa Kr or fam. 35 lectionary manuscript grouping for both the Gospels and Acts & Epistles.

March 19th, 2013

SBL 2013 Walters Art Museum Manuscript Tour

The SBL/AAR 2013 annual conference will be held in Baltimore, MD and will be featuring the Walters Art Museum Biblical Manuscript Tour in conjunction with CSPMT. Four tours will be offered on Saturday, November 23rd and limited to fifteen people per tour. Please contact SBL/AAR regarding registration for the tour.

Among the manuscripts that will be featured during the Walters manuscript tour are:

W. 7 Latin Ottonian Gospels, c. 1000

W. 535 (L 1029) Greek Gospel Lectionary, by Metropolitan Luke of Wallachia dated 1594.

W 539 Armenian T'oros Roslin Gospel, dated 1262.

W. 592 Arabic Gospel, dated 1684.

W. 836/850 Ge' ez Ethiopian Gospels, 14th & 16th century.

W. 917 Slavonic Old Believers Apocalypse, 18th century

March 15th, 2013

Byzantine Gospel Lectionary Groups – The Standard Text or Majority Gospel Lectionary Group.

When Vasileios Antoniades completed the Ecumenical Patriarchal GNT in 1904, his introduction to the edition indicated two types of Greek lectionary MSS. One type being predominant and the other found less frequently while the more dominant type less strongly Byzantine in textual profile. The dominant text type in Gospel lectionary MSS was also found in the majority of slightly older extant manuscripts examined for the edition.

In the West, E. Colwell and the Chicago lectionary project also collated numerous Greek lectionary MSS and also found a dominant or standard type among Gospel lectionary MSS. Prof. Paul Schubert who was part of the project did a special study and examined various lectionary MSS and their relationship to Von Soden’s Byzantine groups φa/b group finding a close textual relationship between the two groups and the standard lectionary manuscript group. Later, both McReynolds and Omanson noticed the same close relationship in their thesis studies which included data comparing the two. CSPMT likewise has noticed this close textual relationship between the continuous text groups 1424 and 7 with the standard or dominant lectionary MS group. Several key diagnostic textual variants could be cited in support of this conclusion. There also a lack of evidence for any textual dependency or influence of either the Western groups i.e. f1 or f13 or the type of text found in the Alexandrian text uncials Aleph and B. This majority or standard lectionary MS group clearly shows closest textual affinity in both its minority and majority readings with the basic Kappa/Byzantine text form and more specifically with Byzantine MS groups 7 and 1424. Both primary lectionary groups have an early yet separate textual history of their individual types within the overall Byzantine text type.

There is also found within this group of MSS many insignificant textual variations. However, their overall relationship as a group, granting a divergent group and other small textual splintering, can be easily recognized through their shared common primary readings as both Colwell and Antoniades had earlier noticed. CSPMT estimates the majority or standard lectionary text group is found in at least 70% of extant MSS in both uncial and minuscule lectionary MSS. Prominent individual MSS such as L 69 and L 381 will be utilized throughout the Gospels for the Byzantine GNT edition representing this majority lectionary text group.

In our next article in this series, we will continue our examination of this textual group's counterpart found in Greek Apostolos MSS which contains Acts and the Epistles.

March 8th, 2013

Byzantine Text Study Summary

During the past few weeks CSPMT has examined the main Byzantine text manuscript groups in a series of brief articles. The Byzantine text in summary is composed of several Greek NT MS groups with some smaller and yet others larger in terms of number of member MSS. At the same time some of these groups contain more Kappa readings while others are not Kappa MS groups but are yet defined as Byzantine text groups due to their number of shared Byzantine readings. The boundaries of the Byzantine text groups are basically the main Kappa groups with fam. Π and 1424 being weakest in their shared number of Byzantine group core readings with f1 and f13 standing outside the Byzantine text tradition.

Any questions regarding more detail or information on the various Byzantine text MS families and groups may be directed to us at:

Paul D. Anderson

March 5th, 2013

An update from CSPMT on the facsimile of GA 2902 from Albania. The pricing is 200 Euros shipping included for the facsimile copy and available from the Interconfessional Bible Society of Albania. Contact details may be found in our March 1st news posting regarding the facsimile's availability.

March 1st, 2013

Byzantine Manuscript Symposium - Dumbarton Oaks

In other news, Dr. David Parker is scheduled to speak at the Byzantine manuscript symposium to be held at Dumbarton Oaks in Washington, D.C. to be held on April 26-28th. Details may be found at the link provided below:

March 1st, 2013

Byzantine manuscript GA 2902

The recently discovery and numbering of Albanian Archive MS ANA93 or now GA 2902 has now led to a limited edition facsimile of this precious Byzantine manuscript. Textually, it belongs to Byzantine Group Π subgroup (a) and the older cluster within this grouping. Previously dated 13th cent. this manuscript has been dated in Germany to the 10th cent. by an expert iconographer specialist. In addition, the Albanian State Achieves now holds to the earlier 10th cent. dating of the manuscript.

The availability of this facsimile of GA 2902 is limited to the first 1,000 copies in a limited printing. We are providing our readers contact details provided by a contact at the Albanian State Achieves in Tirana as follows:

Write to:
Interconfessional Bible Society of Albania:
Attention: Dr. Altin Hysi
General Secretary

Mailing Address: Rr. Dëshmorët e 4 Shkurtit" P. 30/1, Tirana, Albania
phone: + 355 4 271843

February 28th, 2013

Byzantine Group Λ

This Byzantine MS group Λ (Lambda) is named after the uncial (039) or Codex Tischendorfianus III, after its discoverer Constantin Tischendorf who found the manuscript in the East. Codex Λ (039) is now kept in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. This Byzantine text group contains 23 MSS and stands textually between Kx and Gr 1216 and somewhat closer to the main Kappa groups and could be termed basically a weakened Kappa text form.

A unique commonality is that many of its manuscripts contain the Jerusalem colophon at the end of a gospel or at the end of the manuscript. Most MSS from this group date early in terms of Byzantine NT MSS. Among the more well know minuscules in this Byzantine text group are GA 199, 262 and 1187. It will be represented in the Byzantine Greek NT edition by a core member from its group.

Paul Anderson

February 23rd, 2013

Byzantine Group M

Group M is the fourth largest Byzantine manuscript group containing nearly 40 MSS of particular similarity. H. Von Soden had classified a grouping of I MSS as Iφr. In reality this new grouping of MSS were in fact Byzantine manuscripts grouped around a Byzantine uncial Codex Campianus (021) or M. Three subgroups are primarily visible: M10 M27 and M1386. These have been defined and termed by others as M1a, M1b and M2. The uncial M(021) contains slightly divergent readings with the main M group M27 or M1a coming closest to its uncial relative. Other smaller clusters and subgroups may be also found in the group. Leading minuscules of the M group would be GA 10, 27, 1194 and 1413.

Textually, Group M stands midway between the main Kappa groups and family Π with definite close relationship to family Π. The inherent diversity within the M group is likely due to textual pull towards the Kappa groups which were dominant from the Middle Age period on. Group M formed the main challenge to the Kx Byzantine group from the ninth to twelfth century. This Byzantine group deserves more study and will be included for further examination in the Byzantine Greek NT in the apparatus by representation and inclusion of core textual members from the three main subgroups.

Paul Anderson

February 19th, 2013

Editio princeps of Greek (Apostolos) Lectionary added to CSPMT website

The first Greek Apostolos lectionary printed by A. Spellini in Venice (1540) has been aded to our website. Textually, Byzantine Kappa readings are found slightly more prevalent in it as in the Saliberos edition recently added to our site. It is also similar to all printed editions of the Apostolos lectionary up until the AD Press revision of Prof. Tzepos in 1986.

The Spellini Apostolos edition may be found for download under Manuscripts and Texts then in our printed editions section among other Orthodox texts.

February 19th, 2013

Byzantine Greek New Testament (BGNT) Update:

The base consensus text for the BGNT or Byzantine Greek New Testament is now nearing completion. Few textual changes are expected with only three books for scheduled final review. The Kr/f35 consensus text to be utilized as its base text has now been converted to a unicode format for publication. Its Greek font will be similar that used in the new critical edition in the NA28th edition. The text is now under further grammatical review in preparation and is also is being prepared for compilation of the critical apparatus. It is expected to be published first in a handy size similar to the NA or UBS edition with an online editions as well an online edition with CSPMT having already obtained a domain for the online edition.

The Byzantine Greek NT will be the 1st Byzantine/Traditional text consensus Greek New Testament edition based on such a vast amount of actual MS evidence. CSPMT director Dr. Wilbur PIckering has collated a vast array of MSS from this grouping yet with very little internal variation resulting. This achievement and textual unity of the BGNT base text will certainly be displayed in the textual accuracy for the edition in addition to its valuable critical apparatus..

More updates on the Byzantine GNT will follow. Please continue to check our news updates for further information on progress with our Greek New Testament edition.

Paul D. Anderson

February 15th, 2013

Greek Apostolos lectionary added to CSPMT website.

CSPMT has added a 1908 early edition of the Greek Apostolos lectionary. This edition comes from the same textual tradition as the first Greek Apostolos copies first printed by several Greek publishing families in Venice, Italy beginning in the mid-1500s. The type of text exemplified in the Venetian editions continued on with the Saliberos printing company, a historically well known Greek printing company formally located in Athens, Greece.

The Greek Apostolos lectionary was revised and updated in 1986 for the official Greek Orthodox Apostoliki Diakonia Press in 1986. Textually, the revision introduced slightly more non-Kappa readings into the Apostolos lectionary text though remaining throughly Byzantine in text type.

The Apostolos edition added to the website of CSPMT may be found for download by accessing our printed editions section under the manuscript and texts area of our website.

February 13th, 2013

New Kr/f35 group MS lists added to the CSPMT website.

CSPMT has recently completed a new compilation of all known Kr/f35 continuous text and lectionary MSS. These two lists may be found in the Kr/f35 section under our manuscripts and texts homepage heading. More Byzantine text group lists will be added in the near future.

We will also be adding a scanned copy of the Apostolos(Acts and Epistles) Greek lectionary to the CSPMT website in the near future.

January 24th, 2013

Family Π: An early Byzantine text group.

Before addressing the “mixed” Byzantine MSS, it is first necessary to address more closely the third largest Byzantine MS groups and also quite possibly one of the oldest called family Π or Pi. This ancient Byzantine text MS group contains three uncial MSS, Κ (017) Codex Cyprius, Π (041) Codex Petropolitanus and Y (034) Codex Macedonensis along with many quite old Greek minuscule MSS from the 9th-10th century. In addition, Codex A (02) Alexandrinus has been seen as a distinct textual relative of this Byzantine text grouping.

Family Π is currently named after its main uncial Π (041) now held at St. Petersburg National Library of Russia. When Wilhelm Bousset and Herman Von Soden first recognized family Π it was first called Ka or the Koine Antiochian due to its supposed Syrian origins connections. Von Soden also concluded this early Byzantine text group was the text type used by Chrysostom and Theodoret. It has been theorized that it is the same as the Lucianic recension and also the same type as basis for the Peshitta and Philoxenian Syriac.

Family Π contains two main subgroups, Πa and Πb the latter being slightly weakened to the majority ecclesiastical text. Quite often difficult variants or readings found in group Πa MSS are corrected by later second hand scribes to the majority or Kx Byzantine type readings. This leads to the possibility that family Π MSS did in fact predate the majority of Byzantine MSS later found primarily in the Kx Kappa grouping. The textual of the PA or pericope adulterae found in all MSS in family Π is easily recognized and is a particular variation of μ5 not found among other in μ5 Kx Byzantine MSS. Family Π as a group is not discernable outside the gospels with few MSS containing the Epistles and none are found with the Apocalypse.

It is interesting that all family Π MSS have an overall textual pattern in the gospels of being strongly Kappa textual pattern in the Gospel of Matthew but declines in Mark and Luke with quite low percentages found in the MSS for the Gospel of John. This is a pattern contained in other “mixed” Byzantine MSS and is found most prevalent in other “mixed” MSS such as GA 157, 579, 1071 & 1241 among a few others. For the Gospel of John, family Π being weakly Kappa still retains an overall Byzantine profile. Among the more well know minuscule MSS of family Π are: GA 114, 489, 1079, 1219 and the newly discovered Albanian MS GA 2902. There is also a single lectionary MS with a group Πa textual profile, L 2023 found at the Benaki Library-Athens, Greece. Some of the minuscule Πb MSS are: GA 68, 220, 1113 & 1463 among others. Interestingly, MSS of the Πb group seemingly share a particular scribe for their origins. The total number of MSS found among all family Π groups and clusters total over 100 MSS making it the third largest MS family among Byzantine text groupings.

Family Π MS witnesses are rarely found cited in printed editions of the Greek NT and deserve much more study and comprehensive collation. Richard Geerlings and Kirsopp and Sylva Lake did make a cursory study of this important Byzantine MS group in the 1930s and 1950s. Geerlings completed the assumed archetypal text for family Π based upon agreements of Π (041) and GA 1219. Although these studies prove helpful as an inner grouping textual profile comparisons, other more detailed and comparative studies with other Byzantine groups and editions could prove additionally helpful. CSPMT plans to include MSS from its main groups for inclusion in the critical apparatus of our Byzantine GNT edition.

January 16th, 2013

The Byzantine Kr/fam. 35 MS group

The second largest Byzantine MS grouping is known as Kr or family 35. This important Byzantine text grouping is the only known Byzantine text grouping to pass a defined and sustained textual transmission in both continuous and lectionary MS traditions. The total number of MSS found in this grouping number between 300-400 minuscule MSS dating from the 11th to 17th century. There are also numerous MSS of the Kr/fam. 35 type found in the extant lectionary MS tradition. CSPMT is currently engaged in attempting to obtain a total count of these MSS as well. The members of the group are typically easily recognized when compared with other Byzantine MSS by their red lectionary rubrics contained in the MS margins and usually lack both the Eusebian canons and Ammonian section pericope indicators as well.

This Byzantine text grouping was first recognized and described by Herman Von Soden and described in his Die Schriften Des Neuen Testaments vols. (1911-1913). Von Soden divided his (Koine revised) or Kr group by its particular form or profile of the PA (Pericopae Adulterae, Jn 7:52-8:11). The unifying PA profile found in all Kr MSS Von Soden determined was the μ7 PA profile. Dr. Wilbur Pickering, a director with CSPMT has further found that there is a specific profile of the μ7 PA in which all family group members do not vary over (+3) variations from this defined PA profile for family group member qualification. This variation limit or boundary found within the Kr/fam. 35 PA profile is indicative to variation outside the PA for group members. All members (found in the dissertation on Kr in John by Dr. Norris Grubbs, NOBTS) had an agreement of at least two-thirds of family readings with the weakest MS found and included in the family being GA 47 at Oxford. The scribal control and precision of the Kr/fam. 35 group is without parallel in the Greek NT MS tradition. Also, several of its group members were also was found in a recent study by K. Wachtel of INTF to contain among the highest percentages of Kappa readings of several Byzantine MSS surveyed.

The majority of extant complete New Testament MSS are of the Kr/fam. 35 grouping. It has a clearly defined textual profile outside of the Gospels and usually contains a Mc (Complutensian) type profile in the Apocalypse. The group reached its transmission apex at the height of Byzantine literary activity during the Paleologoi Dynasty after the restoration of the Byzantine Empire in Constantinople in the late 1200s. It was most frequently copied MS type at this time period quite often produced at the Hodegon Monastery scriptorium under no less than 4-5 generations of scribes that faithfully reproduced this particular Byzantine text group throughout the Empire including Mt. Athos. The Hodegon scriptorium was financially well supported by the Paleologoi dynasty emperors who often frequented the monastery. The particular script style the MSS were written in being known today as the Hodegon style.

CSPMT has chosen to utilize the Kr/fam. 35 Byzantine consensus text for our Byzantine GNT. It stands textually overall extremely close textually to the TR (textus receptus) and other Byzantine text groups but with a sufficient distance to allow for determination of any variation present. The Kr/fam. 35 group profile (Mc) has little significant textual variation within the Apocalypse. This also will allow an added advantage when variant comparisons are made with other Apocalypse textual groupings. The same can be said when examining Acts and the Epistles as well when utilizing the Kr/fam. 35 profile. The Gospel of John in the Byzantine Tradition volume by R. Mullen et al. utilizing minuscule 35 as its text basis for similar reasons.

In our next article we will examine the opposite side of the Byzantine spectrum known as the "mixed" Byzantines MSS. As a reminder, any further questions our readers may have on specific Byzantine MS groupings or more specifically on particular MSS within the Byzantine text MS tradition are reminded to write us at

Paul Anderson

January 10th, 2013

The Byzantine Kx MS group

Continuing our brief descriptive series on different groups of the Byzantine MSS we will now briefly examine the two most numerous in terms of group members among Kappa MSS, Kx and Kr or family 35. Both of these large Kappa groups were first recognized and analyzed by Herman Von Soden at the beginning of the 20th century.

Kx was defined by Von Soden as the majority of Koine or Kappa MSS that stood textually between the early and small Kappa group K1(Ω) and the Kr/family 35 another large grouping of Kappa MSS. Kappa group Kx includes the majority of Byzantine minuscule MSS ranging from the late 10th century and later with its peak or textual dominance between the 10th and 12th century and prior to the rise in popularity of the second largest Kappa MS grouping Kr or family 35.

Von Soden divided this large MS group by the particular form or profile of the PA (Pericope de Adultera, Jn 7:53-8:11). The most common profile of the PA he found present within Kx is μ5 or μ6. The symbol μ in Von Soden standing for the Greek “μοιχαλης” or adulteress with accompanying numeral 1-7 indicating the MS grouping and distance of his theoretical original form of the PA. Group Kx has a definable textual profile as Wisse, McReynolds and Omanson have all demonstrated in their studies through use of CPM (Claremont Profile Methodology) while examining the grouping in both Luke and Mark. The difficult issue they found was determining the allowable amount of large surplus readings found within the Kx group and exactly how many surplus readings to allow for a given group member for classification purposes. Von Soden also had earlier defined the Kx group profile through the agreement of fourteen member MSS within the Kx group.

Kx MSS were used in the production of the textus receptus editions of Erasmus and Stephanus such as GA 2, 3 and 8 among others. Several Byzantine or Majority text proponents have recently seen Kx as the group of Byzantine Kappa MSS as standing hypothetically closest to the autographic text and being non-recensional in its origins. This is the case for Hodges & Farstad in their stemmatic textual theory and Robinson-Pierpont in their RP Byzantine textform editions. For the most part, numerical majority within the Byzantine MS evidence forms the basis for most of their arguments for Kx superiority. However, the Kx Kappa textform of the Byzantine text was not passed into the lectionary MS tradition as occurred later for Kr or family 35. Therefore, group Kx was not utilized for liturgical purposes within the Greek Orthodox Church.

Outside the Gospels Kx ceases as a textual grouping and the textual profile is replaced by the K or Koine grouping of MSS. Textual splintering of the grouping occurs within the Gospels and outside within the K grouping in Acts and the Epistles. However, a basic “core” profile is retained. The Kx and K are very important textual groups within the Byzantine text type forming the bulk or “majority” of known Byzantine MSS. Their collation and fair and equitable inclusion by inclusion within the BGNT textual apparatus will ensure further understanding and appreciation of their overall value to the history and development of the Byzantine textform. Next, we will briefly examine the Kr or family 35 Byzantine Kappa group which will form the base text for our proposed Byzantine GNT (BGNT) edition.

Paul Anderson

January 5th, 2013

The MT & Byzantine Minority MS Groups

My recent paper in Chicago at national SBL was a reminder of how typically Western textual criticism or NT-TC has usually defined the “Majority text” or MT in terms of “nose count” of extant Greek NT MS. Certainly this has been a substantial viewpoint though not unanimously held among some Western MT proponents from Zane Hodges to Maurice Robinson and has made a lasting impression if not some confusion among opposing viewpoints of the Greek New Testament regarding the MT. However, this is not how we define the MT at CSPMT and is certainly has not been the case historically either within the Eastern Orthodox Churches when looking at the Greek MS evidence and its transmission.

When such a MS “nose count” is made of the extant Gospel MSS to define the MT the result is a particular group dominance such as the case of Kx as Von Soden termed it. Kx or the Koine MSS found in overall “bulk” of Byzantine MSS which lie somewhere between K1 (Omega) and Kr or Byzantine family 35 clearly for the numerical superiority in the Koine MS tradition. This result of “majority” count does not necessarily end with the either the “best” or autographic reading in all cases among Byzantine MSS. On the other hand, neither does it inhibit many readings found within the Kx “bulk” from being autographic. But, these are often shared readings with other smaller Kappa and non-Kappa Byzantine groupings. This is also the case when examining the majority MS tradition contained within Acts, the Epistles and General Epistles with group K and its predominance within the Byzantine MS tradition. However, this rather simplistic perspective or viewpoint ignores the larger overall MT textual tradition found within the Byzantine MS transmission. Numerous smaller MS groupings must be factored in when defining the true MT of the GNT.

These largely ignored Byzantine “minority” MS groups in fact actually formed a substantial “majority” in terms of their usage and acceptance at given periods of time during the textual transmission of the Byzantine MT. Smaller groups such as Gr φ or 7/1424 passed into the lectionary tradition and others such as family Kr or family 35 also played “official” roles within the Church. The latter played a significant role as the text tradition of choice during the apex of Byzantine literary activity during the Paleologoi dynasty. Interestingly, the “majority” Kappa textual groups Kx and K never passed any sustained or a cohesive text into the Greek lectionary MS tradition. These other smaller groups did though. However, due to their lesser numbers to some MT proponents they have been undervalued and to critical text scholars their importance is minimal as most Byzantine MSS are seen as contaminated or secondary as to their textual value in relation to the “first text” which entertains the most interest to critical text scholars.

Another important Byzantine MS grouping is Ka or family Π which contains over a hundred member MSS and considered by some textual scholars as the “oldest” Byzantine MS grouping. It contains three uncials K, Y and Π among its members along with A (02) or Codex Alexandrinus a distant but related MS. It also counts many older minuscules within the family grouping as well. Another grouping of significance is Gr 1424/7 with a close relationship to the standard or “majority” lectionary text as I previously noted in my paper at SBL 2012 in Chicago.

In addition, there are several other important Byzantine MS groupings. The M groups along with groups 22, 1216, Lambda named after Byzantine uncial Λ (039), 291 and 1519 among a few others deserve mention. Most of these MS groups contain twenty or fewer MS members but apparently contain important readings that cannot nor should not be ignored when looking at the overall MT position. The end result is that true “Majority or MT” is contained in a consensus of readings found within several Byzantine text groups like Kx, Kr/family 35 or any of these other smaller Byzantine MS groupings. They all share an overall textual commonality resulting in the Majority or MT text.

CSPMT plans to fairly and accurately represent all of these important Byzantine MS groupings and minority Byzantine MSS in the adjoined critical apparatus of our planned BGNT edition. The MT is therefore composed of an overall consensus of readings and Byzantine MSS and not based solely upon a numbers or “nose” count of Kappa MSS or readings. The result today is a variety of closely related editions of the GNT found in both the East and West such as the “textus receptus” or TR, the Greek Antoiniades or Ecumenical Patriarchal GNT along with more recent Western MT editions such as the RP or HF GNT texts. When this fact regarding the true MT is recognized and appreciated by NT textual scholars from differing viewpoints, further progression may be made in the field with comprehensive collation and study of all Byzantine MSS and the MT.

Paul D. Anderson

December 4th

Our collation comparing the RP 2005 rev. Byzantine textform and Dr. Wilbur N. Pickering's consensus Byzantine family 35 Byzantine textform has been added to our collations section. This important collation compares the majority of Byzantine New Testament MSS over the entirety of the New Testament totaling over thousand MSS in number combined in the vast majority of extant Greek New Testament MSS.

This collation compares the Byzantine Kx and K textforms in the Gospels and Epistles with Byzantine Kr or family 35 grouping of MSS for both. Then in the Apocalypse compares for the most part Q or Ma with Mc or the Computensian form of the text found in the majority of family 35 MSS in the Apocalypse.

November 27th

The recent collation study completed by CSPMT comparing the Apostoliki Diakonia Gospel lectionary with the Ecumenical Patriarchal(Antoniades) GNT is now available for download. It is located in the collations section.

November 25th

CSPMT in conjunction with the Walters Gallery of Baltimore is planning to offer a small group tour for those interested in biblical manuscripts during SBL-Baltimore 2013. Selections of biblical manuscripts at the Walters Gallery will be displayed during SBL 2013 to be held in Baltimore, MD between November 23-26, 2013. The Walters Gallery has an excellent manuscript collection featuring biblical manuscripts in several languages.

Also, CSPMT is planning a joint paper submission with the Walters Gallery for presentation during SBL 2013 as well regarding their biblical manuscript collection. We will be posting more details on these developments as they become available.

November 14th

SBL 2012 Chicago

Included below are the two sessions CSPMT president Paul D. Anderson will be presenting papers at during the annual Society of Biblical Literature meeting in Chicago on November 18th and 19th at the McCormick Place Convention Center:

November 18th
New Testament Textual Criticism Session
Room MPE-236
Paper: The Legacy of the Chicago Lectionary Project and CSPMTs recent discoveries regarding Greek lectionary MSS.

November 19th
The Bible in Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Traditions Session
Room MPN-129
Paper: The Greek Orthodox New Testament and Lectionary: Their History, Text and Traditions Examined.

October 30th

The AD Press Gospel Lectionary - (Antoniades) Ecumenical Patriarchal GNT Collation Project

CSPMT has completed our collation project comparing the AD(Apostoliki Diakonia) Gospel lectionary with the Antoniades or Ecumenical Patriarchal Greek New Testament. A total of nearly 530 variations were found in the four gospels.

The resultant textual pattern of this collation study was (Mk Lk Mt Jn). This is the Byzantine minority text φ-type textual pattern compared with Kappa. The AD Press Gospel lectionary was originally more Kappa in textual profile but was revised by the official AD Press, Athens, Greece in 1986 under Prof. Dimitrios Tzerpos. The Antoniades GNT as it is commonly known was produced in 1904/12' rev. Prof. Antoniades favored the readings found mainly in the ** or φ-type lectionary MSS. Continuous text φ or Gr 7/1424 is most closely related to it among all continuous text MSS.

We will have this collation study available following the paper to be presented by Paul D. Anderson at the Bible in Eastern & Oriental Orthodox Christianity session at the annual SBL-Chicago on November 19th.

October 26th

Lectionary MS L381: The Hamilton Lectionary at the Morgan

Another important "majority" or standard text gospel lectionary manuscript CSPMT will utilize in the apparatus of our planned Greek Gospel Lectionary critical edition will be L381 held at the Morgan Library in New York City. Below follows a brief description of this beautiful and textually valuable Byzantine manuscript.

Lectionary manuscript L381 or Pierpont Morgan Library no. 639, was written in the royal scriptorium in Constantinople during the second half of the 11th century. It has been also suggested that it was utilized for service at Hagia Sophia. It measures 33.5x25.4 and is written in fine cursive minuscule script on fine vellum in 378 leaves in two column format. It contains many beautiful miniatures, illustrations and colored panel headpieces. All illustrations are carefully and delicately made. This manuscript was last bound in purple velvet with purple box by the well know English bookbinder Charles Lewis in the late 18th century. Formally, it had been located in the Escorial Library where it had been stolen from the library Spain finally making its way to England by the 1820s. In 1882, L381 was sold by Sotheby’s, from the Duke of Hamilton who had been former owner, who in turn sold it through Sotheby’s again to the Museum of Berlin. Here the text critic C.R. Gregory examined it in 1887. Later, the manuscript was resold through Sotheby’s for a second time ending in the possession of Henry Yates Thompson. Thompson put it up for sale for the third time through Sotheby’s in 1919 where it was sold finally to J.P. Morgan via Quaritch the well know book dealer. It was later placed in the Morgan manuscript collection in the Morgan Library in New York City.

Textually, L381 is “core” representative of the standard lectionary type of gospel lectionary manuscripts. It is closely related to other leading members of this “φ” manuscript grouping such as L69, L852 and L991 and the later manuscript L1022 of Jerusalem. It could well represent this “standard” lectionary textual grouping in any critical apparatus of the Greek New Testament.

This particular manuscript is very likely one of the most beautifully made and well preserved manuscripts from this time period extant today. It textually value matches its beauty in preservation and execution of details in its iconography and script. CSPMT looks forward to utilize L381 in our critical lectionary edition. L381 has had a long journey as a valuable Byzantine treasure to its final home at the Morgan Library. We thank the Morgan Library conservation staff members for preserving and caring for this valuable Byzantine treasure.

Paul D. Anderson

October 26th

CSPMT and the Majority Text: A statement further outlining the position of CSPMT regarding the so-called Majority Text.

The directors and associates of CSPMT recognize that there are a number of manuscript groupings, editions and translations that comprise the “Majority” or Traditional text of the Greek New Testament. We also maintain at CSPMT individual positions regarding the variety of Byzantine manuscript groupings and/or editions we prefer. We do not require nor prohibit a particular position concerning the "majority reading" on a given variant is always the best or “autographic” on the basis of the numeric quantity of manuscripts in such cases. There are nearly twenty main Byzantine continuous text groupings. Some larger than others. All these Byzantine manuscript groupings of the New Testament contain a number of small disagreements but, overall textual unity prevails between all its various groupings. Taken as a whole or "type", the various Byzantine manuscript groupings combined comprises this corpus known the “Majority text”.

There is also a “majority” or standard lectionary manuscript text type found within the Gospel lectionary manuscripts. So too for the Apostolos lectionary text containing Acts, the Epistles of Paul and General Epistles. We accept these various Greek lectionary manuscripts and editions as well as the Antoniades or Ecumenical Patriarchal Greek New Testament text as a very important part of the Byzantine text tradition. In the West, we also consider the TR or the “textus receptus” in its various editions as a part of the Byzantine or Traditional text due to it's overall textual proximity to most Byzantine text groupings.

This manuscript tradition has long been preserved within the Church: furthermore, based primarily upon internal textual factors we view the Byzantine text manuscripts, editions and translations superior to the Alexandrian/Caesarean manuscripts, the modern eclectic based Greek editions and their own dependent translations.

Regarding translations, CSPMT recommends a variety of translations based upon various Byzantine text types as well as translations based upon the TR such as the KJV and the NKJV. This would include all other translations based upon the TR such as the Reina-Valera and others in different languages as well.

We hope this clarifies our position regarding the Majority or Byzantine text for our readers. Thank you.

Paul D. Anderson

October 23rd

Recently CSPMT has been able to acquire copies of highly significant Greek gospel lectionary manuscripts such as L69, L381 and L1022. These manuscripts are textual representatives of what is known as the “standard” or “majority” lectionary text and will represent this grouping in our upcoming critical gospel lectionary edition. A brief examination of the first of these manuscripts known as L69 follows.

Lectionary manuscript L69 or Gr. 286 is held at the BnF (Bibliothèque Nationale de France) and is dated by the library to the 11th century. It is dated by INTF or (Institute for New Testament Textual Research) to the 12th century. L69 was written in written in Constantinople and contains 257 vellum leaves written in double column format. Also, L69 is fairly standard in size for Greek lectionary manuscripts being 30.7 by 23.3cm and is written in fine Byzantine script. It is slightly lacunose with one folio supplied by a later hand. The manuscript was first examined by Scholtz, Gregory then later by E. Colwell in 1930 for the Chicago Lectionary Project. It also contains the PA (perciopae adulterae) section with the commonly found PA profile known at CSPMT as μ8 or M8.

This lectionary manuscript was first analyzed by Western textual scholars involved in the Chicago Lectionary Project under E.C. Colwell and placed as a leading textual representative of the standard lectionary text form. Later textual scholars involved with the IGNTP (International Greek New Testament Project) also placed it in this same grouping. The textual characteristics of the “standard” lectionary type can be best described as being somewhat distinct from the TR and most Kappa Byzantine groupings yet, retaining most distinctive Byzantine readings. It is also textual extremely close to the Antoniades (Ecumenical Patriarchal) text of the New Testament. The standard or majority Greek gospel lectionary manuscript grouping can be well represented in any textual apparatus with the inclusion of L69.

In the coming days, we will also be reviewing the other two gospel lectionary manuscripts chosen to represent the standard lectionary text form in our upcoming Greek Gospel Lectionary edition. The first of these, L69 should rightfully be recognized as “Queen” of the Greek gospel lectionary manuscripts. It certainly has long history and a unique value among extant Byzantine Greek lectionary manuscripts today.

October 23rd

We are updating our recent news update of Oct. 20th with more new manuscripts of the Greek New Testament. The following manuscripts are some of the others we have obtained information on. Again, these are new manuscripts and have no Gregory-Aland numbers assigned to them yet.

(Mt. Athos)

M. Lavra Monastery:
no. 2054 (le) (1690)

Dionysiou Monastery:
no. 302 (le) pap. (1655) Scribe: Joseph
no. 307 ((le) paper (XV)


M. Neophytu Monastery:
no. ? (le) pap. (1670) Scribe: Nikephoros
no. 5 (lesk) 21.5 x 16 236 fols. (15th cent.) Scribe: Sophronios
no. 11 (e) 26 x 21 115 fols. (13th cent.)


Zoodochos Pigi Monastery:
no. 1 (lesk) 28.5 x 19.5 pap. 223 fols. (15th cent.)

We will continue to update our website periodically with more new information on these and possibly other new manuscripts that may come to our attention.

Paul D. Anderson

October 20th


CSPMT is making available specific information regarding over forty new manuscripts of the Greek New Testament. Included in the following listing of new manuscripts are those from continuous text and gospel lectionary type MSS as well.

(Mt. Athos)

M. Lavra Monastery:
"του Φωκα" (le) 34x 24.5 142 fols., parch. (10th cent.)
One of the most sacred and precious Gospel treasures of Mt. Athos. Gifted to M. Lavra by Emperor Nikephoras II Phocas at the dedication and foundation of M. Lavra.

Iveron Monastery:
no. 2105 (e), parch. (13th cent.)
no. 2106 (le), pap. (1676)
no. 2107 (e), parch. (12th cent.)
no. 2108 (e), parch. (12th cent.)
no. 2109 (e) parch. (12th cent.)
no. 2110 (e) parch. (1322-23)
no. 2111 (le) parch. (12th cent.)
no. 2112 (e) parch. (13th cent.)
no. 2114 (e) parch. (12th cent.)
no. 1385 (le) pap. 2 cols. (1624) Scribe: Luke Metropolitan of Wallachia
no. 1386 (le) pap. 2 cols. (1603) Scribe: Matthew of Metropolitan of Myra
no. 1404 (lesk) parch. (11 cent.) Rare cruciform manuscript and a valued Gospel treasure of Mt. Athos.

Esphigmenou Monastery:
no. 45μ (e) pap. (16th cent.)

Karakallou Monastery:
no. 272 (le) pap. (1680)

St. Paul Monastery:
(e) pap. (15th cent.)

Simonopetra Monastery:
no. χ αρ (le) 35.3 x 24 376 fols. pap. (1622)

Xenophontos Monastery:
(e) 34.5 x 24.5 pap. (1544)

Zopgraphou Monastery:
no. 28μ (le) pap. (1569)

Other locations:


Korgilianos Library:
no. 17 (e) 22.2 x 16.7 226 fols. parch (13th cent.)


Kliston Monastery:
(e) 29.5 x 21.5 pap. 922 fols. (14th cent.)


Archeological Museum of Almyros:
no. 2 (e) 18 x 14 223 fols. parch. (14th cent.)

Xenias Monastery:
no. 1 (lesk) 30 x 21 141 fols. pap. (15th cent.)
no. 14 (ap) 20.5 x 14 307 fols. parch (16th cent.)

Dousikon Monastery:
no. 3 (e) 38 x 27.5 236 fols. pap. (15th cent.)
no. 4 (apr) 19.5 x 14.5 363 fols. parch. (14th-15th cent.)
no. 5 (le) 19.5 x 15 359 fols. pap. (1518)


Taxiarchon Monastery:
no. 1 (le) 277 fols. pap. (1672)
no. 17 (le) 111 fols. pap. (17th cent.)


Church of St. John Prodromos
(e) pap. (1569)


Prousos Monastery:
no. 8 (le) 21.5 x 15 409 fols. pap. (16th cent.)

Tatarnes Monastery:
no. 2 (e) 22 x 15.5 270 fols. pap. (1514) Scribe: Theodoros
no. 3 (le) 29.5 x 19.5 240 fols. pap. (17th cent.)


Larnaka Municipal Library:
no. 28 (le) 22 x 15.5 203 fols. pap. (14th cent.)
no. 36 (le) 22 x 15 162 fols. pap. (15th cent.)
no. 48 (le) 32.5 x 22 229 fols. pap. (17th cent.)

Nicosia Patriarchate
no. 65 (e) 23 x 16.5 166 fols. parch. (14th cent.)
no. 66 (le) 32 x 22 139 fols. pap. (15th cent.)
no. 74 (le) 25.5 x 17.5 169 fols. pap. (13-14th cent.)
no. 77 (le) 29 x 22 198 fols. (14th cent.)

It is our hope that we will soon be acquiring digital copies of these and other new manuscripts from our sources in Greece. This is a partial listing. There are many more manuscripts we have obtained information on. As more information becomes available we will be posting more news on this important finding. It is possible we will have additional details on these manuscripts at the ETS and SBL Conference to be held in next month in Milwaukee and Chicago.

We respect the privacy of our sources as well as for the holding institutions and monasteries where these precious and sacred Byzantine manuscripts are held at.

Paul Anderson

October 4th

The Jerusalem order Greek lectionary manuscripts have long held interest to both textual scholars and those interested in Greek lectionary manuscripts in general. Recently, CSPMT has identified the textual profile and relationship that these manuscripts share most closely with other particular Byzantine continuous text Greek New Testament manuscripts.

CSPMT has found textual evidence that these Jerusalem order lectionary manuscripts differ from both the standard α or φ-type of Byzantine lectionary manuscripts as well as being distinct from the smaller number of β-type or more strongly Kappa grouping of Greek lectionary manuscripts. In collations, these manuscripts appeared to match most closely with weaker Kappa manuscripts quite similar to Byzantine family Πa and Codex W(032). This appears to make the this ancient grouping of manuscripts of proto-Byzantine textual origins. At the same time, it was found that this ancient lectionary grouping of manuscripts did not match with either the B-text or the so-called Caesarean text i.e. (f1 f13) while retaining all primary Byzantine text readings.

Paul D. Anderson of CSPMT will be presenting a paper at the annual meeting of SBL (Society of Biblical Literature) this November covering in part differing texttypes found among several groups of Greek Gospel lectionary manuscripts. The Jerusalem order lectionary manuscripts will also be discussed. In addition, this important lectionary group of manuscripts will also be included in the textual apparatus of our upcoming critical lectionary edition of the Greek Gospel lectionary.

October 6th

We are announcing the lectionary textual groupings and editions for use in the critical apparatus of our upcoming CSPMT Greek Gospel lectionary. The apparatus will contain the following manuscript groupings and editions.

Greek Gospel Lectionary: Critical Edition

Base Text: ΙΕΡΟΝ ΕΥΑΓΓΕΛΙΟΝ (Apostoliki Diakonia Press) Athens, 2005.

MS groupings:

Group φ - The grouping of gospel lectionary manuscripts containing the standard or majority type of Greek lectionary manuscripts. They also quite often contain a particular PA we have called M8 for its unique profile. Most like the Antoniades Ecumenical Patriarchal GNT text. Prof. Antoniades usually favored this groupings readings for his edition.

Group β - Smaller minority grouping of lectionary manuscripts which are found to contain more Kappa readings than the majority or standard text type grouping. Most often are Kr/f35 lectionary manuscripts with a M7 PA included.

Group K - A grouping of lectionary manuscripts mainly produced by scribes in the Byzantine stronghold of Wallachia and other Orthodox areas during the years following the post-Byzantine Empire. These manuscripts are strongly Kappa in textual profile with admixture of the early standard type. The PA is included and is the M8 profile type contained in the standard text yet with many readings of the earlier Kr/f35 Kappa type. This manuscript grouping heavily influenced the Venetian printed editions that were to remain dominant for centuries.

Group J - The Jerusalem order manuscripts. A small number of early uncial lectionary manuscripts which may predated the standard or Byzantine order manuscripts. Due to their fragmentary nature, and transmission into various early translations i.e. Armenian and others, their inclusion was deemed essential for the edition. They do not contain the PA and have very early readings while at the same time retaining all essential Kappa readings of other Byzantine lectionary groupings.


V - Venetian lectionary edition or Saliberos type (majority gospel lectionary 1539-1968)

EP - Antoniades (Ecumenical Patriarchal) Greek New Testament 1904/12 rev.

TR - Textus Receptus (Stephanus 1550)

MT - Robinson Pierpont 2005

f35 - Pickering f35 consensus text (net edit.)

CT - Nestle/Aland (edit. to be determined)


Th - Theophylact's Explanation of the New Testament (Gospels).

October 4th

The Jerusalem order Greek lectionary manuscripts have long held interest to both textual scholars and those interested in Greek lectionary manuscripts in general. Recently, CSPMT has identified the textual profile and relationship that these manuscripts share most closely with other particular Byzantine continuous text Greek New Testament manuscripts.

CSPMT has found textual evidence that these Jerusalem order lectionary manuscripts differ from both the standard α or φ-type of Byzantine lectionary manuscripts as well as being distinct from the smaller number of β-type or more strongly Kappa grouping of Greek lectionary manuscripts. In collations, these manuscripts appeared to match most closely with weaker Kappa manuscripts quite similar to Byzantine family Πa and Codex W(032). This appears to make the this ancient grouping of manuscripts of proto-Byzantine textual origins. At the same time, it was found that this ancient lectionary grouping of manuscripts did not match with either the B-text or the so-called Caesarean text i.e. (f1 f13) while retaining all primary Byzantine text readings.

Paul D. Anderson of CSPMT will be presenting a paper at the annual meeting of SBL (Society of Biblical Literature) this November covering in part differing texttypes found among several groups of Greek Gospel lectionary manuscripts. The Jerusalem order lectionary manuscripts will also be discussed. In addition, this important lectionary group of manuscripts will also be included in the textual apparatus of our upcoming critical lectionary edition of the Greek Gospel lectionary.

October 2nd

Through our study and collation of various Byzantine text groupings, CSPMT has determined that the royal scriptorium of the Hodegon Monastery at Constantinople produced over three generations of scribes activity engaged in producing a single Byzantine text type in lectionary and continuos text manuscripts produced there between 1319-1453.

The Kr or family 35 Byzantine text type has been found to have been the preferred textual grouping of manuscripts produced under the Paleologoi dynasty at the Hodegon scriptorium at the height of literary activity in the Byzantine Empire. The unique script called the Hodegon style was carried on beyond the fall of the Empire and its origins at the monastery. The three scribes in their respective generations there known are: Chariton (1319-1350), Joasaph (1360-1406) and Sophronios (1418-1440).

The manuscripts produced at the Hodegon monastery were not only gifted and presented to the Paleologoi dynastic rulers but to monasteries at Mt. Athos which were placed in the Mt. Athos sacristies as some of Byzantium's most valued textual treasures. Emperor Andronikos III passed away at this monastery and both his predecessor and successor in the Empire heavily favored this monastery due to its link with the famous Hodegetria Icon which was also kept in its vicinity.

This important textual discovery increases our overall awareness of scribal and textual activities at different scriptoriums in during the Byzantine Empire and shows us today which types were preferred and their origins as well. CSPMT will continue to update our website with any other new information regarding the Byzantine text scribes and the manuscripts they produced.

September 29th

CSPMT has acquired information and details on twelve new manuscripts of the New Testament from Mt. Athos. These include both lectionary and continuous text manuscripts.

We will possibly be making more details and information on these new manuscripts available at the annual meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature to be held in Chicago in November.

September 27th

A collation study has been completed by CSPMT comparing all internal textual variants between the Antoniades (Ecumenical Patriarchal) gospel text and the Apostoliki Diakonia (AD Press) gospel lectionary. This study will be posted on our website immediately following its initial release during the paper on the two editions to be presented by CSPMT president and founder Paul D. Anderson on November 19th at the annual Society of Biblical Literature meeting this year.

August 21st

CSPMT is now planning a critical Greek gospel lectionary edition before the Byzantine Greek NT (BGNT) edition. The title of the edition will be, The Greek Gospel Lectionary: Critical Edition. There will be other updates on this edition to follow shortly.

August 8th

The president of CSPMT Paul Anderson will be presenting two papers at this years annual Society of Biblical Literature meeting on Nov. 18th & 19th in Chicago. The first paper to be presented at the versions session of the New Testament Textual Criticism unit will be reviewing the Chicago Lectionary Project and CSPMTs recent textual discoveries regarding Greek lectionary MSS. The second paper will be presented during the Bible in Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodoxy unit and will survey the historic development and place of the Greek lectionary along with the Ecumenical Greek New Testament (Antoniades) edition within the Greek Orthodox Church.

In other news, CSPMT has information regarding nearly twenty new unregistered New Testament MSS at Mt. Athos. There will be further information on these manuscripts made available during the SBL meeting this year in Chicago.

February 8th

CSPMT research summary on Greek lectionary manuscripts and editions has been added to our lectionary section. You may also read it by clicking here

[click here to view]

March 23rd

RSS updates now available on the CSPMT website. Clicking on the RSS button to the left will provide you with the RSS feed of our news releases.

March 13th

CSPMT would like to thank the staff of the Freer Gallery/Smithsonian Institute for the recent up close and personal examination of Codex W(032). We would also like to announce the continued availability of high resolution color DVD images of the complete manuscript available at the following link:

Codex Washingtonensis remains an extremely valuable and underestimated manuscript for its importance to the autographic text of the New Testament.

March 9th

The CSPMT lectionary edition comparison study has been added to the Resources section.

March 9th

Herman Hoskier's vols. on B(Vaticanus) and Revelation have been added to the Resources section.

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